Skip to main content

Full text of "Breaking down Chinese walls, from a doctor's viewpoint"

See other formats

/ . 2.0 . /S 

<^^ PRINCETON, N. J. ^ 

Purchased by the Hamill Missionary Fund. 

BV 3415 .073 1908 
Osgood, Elliott I. 1871- 

Breaking down Chinese walls 

Breaking Down Chinesi 

Breaking Down 
Chinese Walls 

From a Doctor's Viewpoint 

.■',1 -• ' 
JAN ' 

/ By 

Missionary at Chu Cheo^ Anhwui Province^ 

China^ under the Foreign Christian 

Missionary Society 

New York Chicago Toronto 

Fleming H. Revell Company 

London and Edinburgh 

Copyright, 1908, by 

New York: 158 Fifth Avenue 
Chicago: 125 No. Wabash Ave. 
Toronto: 25 Richmond Street, W. 
London : 2 1 Paternoster Square 
Edinburgh: 100 Princes Street 

Introductory Note 

DR. ELLIOTT L OSGOOD, the author 
of this work, has been in China as an 
evangelist and physician for eight years. 
Chu Cheo, a town about forty miles northwest 
of Nanking, has been the scene of his labours. 
The doctor's work has been to conduct a hospital 
and dispensary in the central station at Chu 
Cheo, visit and preach the Gospel and heal the 
sick in the outstations and villages round about. 

While at home on his furlough, Dr. Osgood 
visited many American centres, speaking in the 
interest of the work in China. His addresses 
were so illuminating and so enjoyable that there 
was a general demand for their publication. 
These addresses constitute the substance of this 

Dr. Osgood had it in mind from the first to 
show that the daily life of the missionaries is one 
of the most effective agencies in winning the 
Chinese to Christ. He has shown that the 
mother in her home caring for the children plays 
a part scarcely less important than her husband 
in the pulpit and in the hospital. 

The Chinese know nothing about Christianity 
before the missionary comes to them and they 



care less. They have been proud of their time- 
honoured institutions and rehgions. The mis- 
sionary must not only preach Christ to them but 
he must demonstrate by Uving illustrations the 
superiority of Christianity over their heathen 

For this purpose the missionaries have opened 
dispensaries, hospitals and schools. They have 
surrounded their homes with western con- 
veniences and comforts. They have given lec- 
tures in chemistry, electricity and mechanics 
with experiments. The superiority of modern 
tools over those used by the Chinese has been 
shown. The Chinese have been given oppor- 
tunity to compare foreign saddles, sewing ma- 
chines, stoves and the construction of the mission 
houses, with their own products. 

In the mission hospital not only has the 
superiority of modern surgery and medicine been 
shown them but, far more important, they have 
seen and felt the difference between the crude 
and rough handling of the sick by their own 
physicians and the tender, sympathetic work of 
the medical missionary. They may not at first 
appreciate the cleanliness enjoined in the hos- 
pital, but they cannot help but be impressed with 
the skill and gentleness of the foreigner as he 
quiets the fevered patients and drives away the 

The view of a man and woman standing on 


equal relations, at first shocks them, but the 
longer they study the phenomenon, the more 
must they be impressed with its power over 
future generations. It had not occurred to them 
that a man could find sweet fellowship with one 
of the opposite sex. They had not dreamed of 
a love like that manifested in the mission homes. 
The elevation of womanhood to her rightful place 
by the side of her brother has played a great 
part in the elevation of modern nations. It is 
slowly dawning upon the Chinese that if they 
would become like other nations their woman- 
kind must be given their rightful place. 

All of these demonstrations are but an exposi- 
tion of the power of Christ to uplift humanity and 
eventually must lead the Chinese to accept Him. 
They are a practical people. They will only de- 
sire an article after its value has been proven to 
them. By the homes, schools, hospitals and 
other institutions, which missionaries have been 
planting in China, the vital value of Christianity 
to the needs of the Chinese is being demonstrated 
and is winning them to Christ. 

This book is different from any other book 
upon the Chinese problem that has come to my 
notice. It gives information the people desire, 
and in a concrete form. No one can read what 
Dr. Osgood has written without being enlight- 
ened and without being drawn into fuller sym- 
pathy with the men, women and children at the 


front. Those who wish to know what a mis- 
sionary family does and how it is done cannot do 
better than to read this most interesting work. 

Archibald McLean, 

President of the Foreign Christian 
Missionary Society. 
Cincinnati^ igo8» 


I. The Entering Wedge 

II. A Day in the Dispensary . . .23 

III. Stories of the Hospital . . .34 

IV. In the Opium Refuge . . .44 

V. The Missionary Compound . -55 

VI. The Missionary Home as an Evangel- 

istic Agency 67 

VIL The Gospel Through a Brace and 

Bit 77 

VIII. The New Age in China . . .87 

IX. Working with the New Element . 98 

X. Seeking for Straws of Hope . .107 

XI. Do THE Chinese Converts Make Sin- 

cere Christians . . . .116 

XII. My "Timothy" 126 

XIII. Do Little Girls Count . . .137 

XIV. A Chinese " Dorcas "... 145 

XV. "Happiness is Come" . . .154 

XVI. Chinese Roads and Streets . .164 

XVII. When We Go Itinerating . .173 

XVIII. The Chinese Evangelist . . .184 

XIX. The Chinese as Givers . . . 192 

XX. A Missionary Sanitarium . . . 200 

XXI. The Fascination of the Mission 

Field 209 


List of Illustrations 

Facing page 
A Part of the Kuling Valley with the School Buildings 

in the Foreground Ti^/e 

Worshipping at the Confucian Temple by Successful 
Candidates 24 

Mission Hospital at Lu Cheo Fu, Anhwui Province, 
China. Dr. Buchart who has this Hospital in Charge, 
Treats from One Hundred to One Hundred and Fifty 
Patients a Day . 24 

Missionaries Turning Aside from their Conference to an 
Afternoon Tea 69 

The Author's Home in Chu Cheo, China. His Dispen- 
sary is Seen at the Right 69 

A Group of Influential Chinese who Studied with the 
Author loi 

Chinese School Children at the Chu Cheo Dispensary , loi 

Chinese Christians in Convention 134 

Mr. Shi, the Story -Teller Evangelist of the Chu Cheo 
District and Mrs. Shi, the " Dorcas " of her Village . 148 

Mr. Chen Li-Seng 148 

Djao Lai-fu and His Charges 162 

Little Missionaries 162 

Entrance to Chu Cheo City, Showing Rut of Wheel- 
barrow in Paving Stones ; City Gates, Wall and Moat; 
and a Wayside Restaurant 17 1 

Travelling on the Road in Sedan Chairs with Wheel- 
barrows as Freight Cars 171 

Evangelist Koh and Family of Chu Cheo District . 187 
Evangehst Djao who was Picked Up from the Ranks of 
Famine Refugees 187 

Breakinpf Down Chinese Walls 



IN the midst of His higher ministry to men, 
Christ was ever busy heaUng their diseases 
and relieving their pains.. The most suc- 
cessful mission work has been done in those 
places where the missionaries first ministered to 
the diseased conditions of the men whose souls 
they were seeking to save. 

David Livingstone won his way through Africa 
with his medicine chest and a few well-chosen 
surgical instruments. Peter Parker opened 
China to the Gospel by use of the lancet. Dr. 
Allen saved the life of a Korean prince after the 
native doctors had tried in vain to staunch the flow 
of blood with sealing wax. It was through this act 
that the Hermit Kingdom was thrown open to 
mission work. Evangelical missionaries tried in 
vain to enter Kashmir until Dr. Elmslie with his 
medical skill paved the way for the entrance of 
Christianity. Likewise Dr. Carr succeeded in 
establishing a mission station in Ispahan, Persia, 
when other methods tried by his bishop had 
signally failed. 



The history of missions shows that medical 
work is the key that unlocks the door to heathen 
hearts. Simple help like the pulling of a tooth, 
the lancing of an abscess, the giving of a dose of 
quinine, or the application of sulphur ointment, 
has opened regions hitherto unaccessible. It is 
the purpose of this chapter to show how medical 
missionaries have been used in opening China to 
the Gospel. 

The Need. The scale of living among the 
large portion of China's millions is very low. 
Ignorance concerning the laws of hygiene, sani- 
tation and health is dense. They have no quar- 
antine. The meat from dead animals is eaten by 
poorer classes. Kitchen refuse is thrown into a 
cesspool at the front door. Typhus and typhoid 
fevers, cholera and smallpox are prevalent 
diseases. Dirty clothes and hands are applied 
freely to inflamed eyes until chronic inflammation 
of the lids, ingrowing eyelashes and opacity of 
the cornea result therefrom. Sloughing of the 
entire foot frequently follows foot binding. 
Bruises and injuries to the skin surface resolve 
themselves into ulcers. Ulcers are covered over 
with gummy plasters which force the septic dis- 
charge into the general circulation. Lack of 
cleanliness causes sixty per cent, of the diseases 
which appear at the door of the missionary 

Evil spirits are supposed to be the cause of 


most diseases. The Chinese physician seeks to 
cure the condition by expelling the evil spirit. 
For this purpose he uses a long needle which, 
cold or hot, clean or dirty, he thrusts into the part 
of the body affected by the disease. His pur- 
pose is to make an opening through which the 
spirit may depart. Into the liver or neck, knee 
or elbow joint, it is thrust, setting up inflammation 
and abscesses, often rendering the part forever 

Some of the experimental knowledge gleaned 
by Chinese physicians is valuable, but it is so 
often mixed up with superstitious ideas as to 
render much of their practice useless and even 
dangerous to life. They use a large variety of 
vegetable drugs but with these they mix tigers' 
claws, lions' bones, human flesh, blood of animals 
and like peculiar ingredients. 

Even such service as they qan render must be 
monopolized by the richer classes as the poor 
people have little money with which to pay 
doctor's bills. The Chinese have no free dispen- 
saries, no hospitals, no charitable institutions, — 
or did not have until Christian missions taught 
them the lesson. A poor man falls by the road- 
side and remains there until he recovers his 
strength or dies. His dead body may lie un- 
buried until wild dogs and wolves devour the 
flesh and only the whitened bones are left to tell 
the story of another tragedy. 


Infanticide is common among the lower classes. 
The evidences of its practice are constantly before 
the eyes of the missionary. Invariably it is the 
girl babe which is destroyed. The people have 
little knowledge as to the proper food for chil- 
dren and large numbers of them are carried away 
each year by pestilence. Those which survive 
are constantly beset with ills. Babes are tied to 
the back of an older sister and all through the 
day the little eyes are allowed to face the glare of 
the sun. Dust, dirty washclothes and the prev- 
alence of specific diseases do the rest to rob 
many a child of sight when it has just begun to 

To save washing and watching the child, its 
clothes are so made that it can care for itself. 
The seeds of social impurity are thus sown at a 
startlingly early period. Parents do not restrain 
their talk before the children and the child lan- 
guage becomes innocently vile. Missionary 
children cannot be allowed to associate with them 
because of this contamination. 

There is another need for medical mission- 
aries. Protestant Christendom has sent out sev- 
enteen thousand men and women to bear the 
Gospel to heathen nations. Ten thousand chil- 
dren are growing up in those Christian homes 
whose circle and circumference are walled back by 
squalor, filth and contagious diseases, and whose 
atmosphere is penetrated by a weakening climate. 


These missionary centres are often separated 
from medical aid by many days' journey. Five 
hundred and fifty men and two hundred and 
fifty women physicians, eight hundred in all, 
have been sent out who not only have the care 
of the health of the missionaries in their keeping, 
but also are annually treating three millions of 
heathen patients in a thousand hospitals and dis- 
pensaries. Medical missionaries often ride fifty 
or one hundred miles to reach the bedside of one 
of their fellow workers. 

The Method. In large Chinese centres 
modern hospitals have been erected either as the 
gift of friends in the homelands or by rich Chi- 
nese who appreciate the value of modern medi- 
cine and surgery. The main building of a mis- 
sion hospital may contain a chapel, waiting 
room, examination room and dispensary. Wards 
for men and women, surgical and medical cases, 
opium breakers and special cases give room for 
patients who must remain under the doctor's care 
for a time. Conveniently situated is a modern 
operating room. To these main departments 
will be added other buildings to be used for 
kitchens, assistants' room, laundry, etc. In small 
cities the buildings are less elaborate, built to fit 
the local needs. 

In the greater number of the hospitals the 
whole responsibility rests upon the shoulders of 
one medical man who must meet every call, 


whether medical or surgical. He must be an ex- 
ecutive, handling assistants, cooks and coolies. 
He must watch and instruct every assistant dur- 
ing the clinics, operations and subsequent nurs- 
ing of patients. The buying of supplies, the 
preparation of dressings, the paying out of 
moneys and even the presenting of the Gospel 
to the thousands of patients, must be under his 

The daily clinic will have patients from the 
next door and a hundred miles away. Each 
patient is accompanied by one or more friends. 
They gather in chapel and listen to the Gospel 
story as they wait. Each patient pays a nomi- 
nal fee and is registered as to name, age, sex, 
home and disease. Each receives a copy of a 
Gospel. The door to the examination room is 
opened and in turn they file in and are treated. 
The abscesses are lanced, the ulcers cleansed and 
dressed ; the surgical cases referred to the oper- 
ating room and hospital ; the medicine is pre- 
scribed and instructions, as to taking it, carefully 
given. The number of those who daily pass 
through the various dispensaries is from ten to 
three hundred. The friends who accompany 
them are legion. 

The doctor watches all the cases. Under his 
eye the assistants do the cleansing and dressing 
and the giving out of drugs. It is difficult for 
the Chinese to comprehend the mysteries of for- 


eign medicines. Too frequently the patient has 
taken the external application internally and 
rubbed the internal medicine on the outside. 
The value of bathing and deep breathing, as 
remedial agents, has never occurred to him. 

The operating room. Surgeons on the mission 
field take great care to hold their technique up to 
modern standards. They read the best medical 
magazines and spend a goodly part of their fur- 
loughs in post-graduate work in medical col- 
leges. They train their assistants to properly 
sterilize dressings and instruments and prepare 
themselves, the operating room and the patient 
for the operation. One of them must be trained 
to become an anesthetizer. 

The list of operations performed in a mission 
hospital reads like a compendium on surgery. 
It is safe to say that nowhere in the wide world 
can such a variety of aggravated cases, needing 
surgical interference, be found. The patients 
have passed through all the stages of neglect and 
mal-treatment by the native doctors and fre- 
quently come to the foreign physician as a last 
resort. A successful operation, under such con- 
ditions, usually meets with proper marks of grati- 
tude and prepares favourable soil for the recep- 
tion of the Gospel through subsequent conva- 

The hospital. The wards have cement or wood 
floors. The walls are plastered and well lighted. 


Such surroundings are very different from those 
found in the Chinese home. Where possible the 
hospital owns its own bedding and has clothing 
for the patients. When a patient is received, he 
is given a thorough bath, his clothes are steril- 
ized and put away and he is given a suit of 
clothes from the hospital supplies. When he 
leaves, his own clothing is returned to him. 
Such is not always the case. Where funds are 
insufficient, the patients must bring their own 
bedding and wear their own clothing, but such con- 
ditions are not favourable for good medical work. 

The walls of the hospital are decorated with 
Scripture texts and pictures in the Chinese lan- 
guage and art. The spirit of Christ is poured 
out upon the patients in tender ministry to their 
diseased bodies. Having nothing to do, they 
are in a receptive mood to hear the Gospel. The 
Chinese evangelist and foreign doctor go among 
them and both teach and illustrate the message 
by their ministry. Some of these patients are in 
the hospital for a day or two. Some remain 
there for months. 

Teaching the assistants is a necessary part of 
the doctor's work. The servants must be taught 
how to clean the rooms and furniture. The cook 
must learn how to prepare food for sick people. 
The medical assistants must long and carefully 
study modern medicine. The best medical 
works must be translated into the vernacular. 


The doctor himself must learn to put it all into 
their language and thought. Every clinic be- 
comes a recitation, every movement an example. 
The assistants must not only become skillful 
doctors, but skillful Christian doctors. An un- 
principled assistant can undo all the good work 
done by the doctor. The reproduction of the 
Christ-life in them will double the influence of 
the hospital. 

The medical missionary visits patients in their 
homes. To the homes of the poor he will go 
without charge. The rich readily pay a proper 
fee and make subscriptions to the hospital. 
The doctor attends births, suicides, cases of con- 
tagion and virulent fevers. He is even believed 
to have power to raise the dead and finds him- 
self called to a home where death has preceded 
him by several hours. 

The Results. The influence of the medical 
work extends beyond the bounds of all other 
missionary activities. No single evangelist with 
a corps of Chinese helpers can visit as many 
towns as are represented by the patients who 
come to a single dispensary. The work has no 
geographical bounds. The evangelist may be 
driven out of a place by fanatical mobs, but no 
such power can stop the sick in that place from 
entering the mission hospital. 

We might tell of mobs in distant places who 
have been stilled by the mediation of some one 


who, through ministration to his sick body, has 
been brought under the spell of Christ, and who 
now willingly endangers his own life to save 
that of some missionary ; or of the homes which 
have been thrown open to the evangelist itiner- 
ating into distant places ; of the churches which 
have sprung up and flourished for years before 
being reached by the preacher, all under the 
fostering care of the same grateful patients, who 
have been saved both body and soul, while on a 
forced visit to the foreign hospital. 

Common labourers have refused pay for little 
helps rendered to the doctor, because of his 
kindness to them when they have been sick. 
Consecrated evangelists have come from the 
ranks of opium sots, saved from the toils of the 
opium demon by the ministries of the doctor. 
Thousands caught their first glimpse of the Christ 
while in the hospital and are humbly following 
Him to-day. 

Grateful patients among the rich classes have 
willingly subscribed to the funds of the hospital 
and, in cases, have built entire hospitals. The 
assistants have been called to take charge of 
institutions supported entirely from Chinese 
sources and have carried their religion, as well 
as their medical skill into these new spheres 
of activity. Other students have set up inde- 
pendent practice, and also become centres for 
the spread of Christianity. 


The medical missionary bears a heavy respon- 
sibility in the development of the new church. 
Upon him falls the responsibility of instructing 
these babes in Christ in lessons of cleanliness, 
social purity and sanitary science. He becomes 
family doctor to the Christians. From him they 
have learned that disease is not caused by the 
entrance of evil spirits into the body. Christian 
medicine is an enemy to all quackery, supersti- 
tion, exorcism, and witchcraft. Wherever it has 
come, these tools of Satan have been broken. 

Works on physiology and anatomy have been 
translated into almost as many languages as the 
Bible itself. They have been introduced among 
the Chinese and are now being used as text-books 
in their public schools. The mission hospital is 
a school for the teaching of the science of health. 
Upon the medical missionary has fallen the 
responsibility of the health of the entire mission- 
ary body. The long terms of service in uncon- 
genial climates, the rearing of children in un- 
sanitary surroundings, the strenuous hardships 
endured in this great service of Christ have been 
made possible by the untiring devotion of the 
medical associate. 

It is no small thing that strength and health, 
skill and learning, tenderness and sympathy, 
wealth and personality, should be freely given to 
the destitute and decrepit, the foul and vile, the 
poor and homeless. The medical missionary, in 


the midst of the multitudes crowding around 
and, on bended knee, imploring his ministrations 
in their behalf, is not unlike Him who made the 
blind to see, the lame to walk, cleansed the 
lepers, unstopped the ears of the deaf, raised the 
dead and preached the Gospel to the poor. ** I 
was naked and ye clothed Me ; sick and ye 
visited Me ; in prison and ye came unto Me." 



SILKS and satins may be seen here and 
there among those gathered in the waiting 
room of the mission dispensary but the 
greater part of the patients are wearing faded 
and much patched cotton garments. An Ameri- 
can tramp would be ashamed to wear some of 
the garments displayed. Yet these patients are 
not tramps. They are refugees, day labourers, 
and fuel cutters who are suffering under a weight 
of oppression and sickness, people who rarely 
know a full meal. 

A number of them are opium smokers, A 
** hitter of the pipe " can be told by his stooped 
shoulders, discoloured teeth and the burned holes 
in his garments. Some time when he has been 
nodding over his pipe, his coat has come too near 
the flame of the opium lamp. Ask him if he 
smokes and ten chances to one he will deny it. 
Pick up the index finger of his right hand and 
show him the stain that comes from the daily 
moulding of the little opium ball which he must 
heat and roll into shape for the bowl of his opium 
pipe. He will look up with a foolish grin and 



remark to the other patients about the shrewd- 
ness of the foreigner. 

It is nearing the dinic hour. The patients 
have registered and paid a nominal fee of three 
or four cents. The evangelist steps up to the desk 
and begins to speak. His subject is chosen 
from a series of thirty, one for each day of the 
month. Those subjects, beginning with " There 
is One God," cover the salient points of the 
plan of salvation. Most of them dwell upon the 
life and ministry of our Lord while on earth. 
Month by month the patients are ever changing 
but these are subjects that must be preached to 
them all. In the simplest manner the evangelist 
seeks to impress his motley audience with the 
connection between the mission dispensary and 
God who *' so loved the world." Oh, it has to 
be simple. If one would learn how to speak to 
little children let him first practice on a disease- 
stricken Chinese audience. 

The doctor comes in to obtain a general view 
of the day's patients. A beggar presses his way 
through the crowd and, falling down upon his 
knees, bumps his head upon the bare bricks of 
the waiting-room floor. 

" Foreign official, I am a poor beggar and 
have no money. My little boy has been sick a 
longtime. Will you not, for merit's sake, 'do 
good deeds ' and heal my boy ? " 

He pushes forward a little fellow, pale and 

Worshipping at the Confucian Temple by successful 

^Mission Hospital at Lu Cheo Fu. Anhwui Province. China. 
Dr. Buchart, who has this hospital in charge, treats from 
one hundred to one hundred and nfty patients a day. 


anemic. Malaria has been shaking the poor lit- 
tle form to pieces. His lips are blue. The wasted 
limbs can scarcely support the distended abdomen. 

As we give him the medicine and carefully in- 
struct him as to the method of taking it, we 
gently tell the father of the One who used to heal 
by a touch such little ones as this boy. We tell 
him that by reason of Christ having laid up merit 
for us by His death on the cross, we no longer 
need to *'do good deeds'' for ourselves. We 
minister to the sick because He saw how men 
suflFer and die in anguish. Because of His pity 
for such. He asked us to come to the sick among 
the Chinese and minister to them for Him. 

The rest of the patients and their friends have 
crowded around as we have been speaking and 
begin to press forward their claims. Ulcered 
limbs, swollen jaws, fevered babies and emaciated 
forms are brought to our attention. Every 
patient is accompanied by one or more members 
of his family who join in the general clamor. 
So we step inside and the doorkeeper, at signal, 
admits them group by group. A large per 
cent, of the patients are afflicted with some form 
of sepsis, brought on by dirt and neglect. Could 
they have known and observed the simple law of 
cleanliness, one half of them would never have 
needed to come near the doctor. Cleansing 
must be the first step in the healing process. It 
is likewise the last step. The lance, the electric 


battery, the dusting powders, the ointments, the 
dressings, are all adjuncts to the one main 
remedy of cleanliness. 

Here is a man who has suffered for years with 
a large ulcer on his leg. If he will come steadily 
for a month, or better still, remain for a time in 
the hospital, his long standing trouble will be 
cured. The next man has spent money and time 
on Chinese doctors but has grown steadily 
worse. He came to us a week ago. Now one 
need but look into his face to see that he is being 
healed. He pours out his thanks every time an 
opportunity affords. 

This woman, nursing her swollen face, catches 
her first glimpse of a pair of dental forceps. The 
Chinese have no such surgical instrument. Their 
only relief for toothache, or neuralgia, or rheuma- 
tism, or any other form of that terrible malady 
called Pain, is opium. To opium they flee sooner 
or later, until thousands upon thousands are 
added to the list of victims of this habit, all because 
of Pain. Very soon this woman is going out of 
the door with that offending molar in her hands. 
She shows it to her friends who gather around her 
outside. She tells them how easy the foreign 
doctor pulled it and how the pain is already gone. 
When they fall under the bondage of this same 
tyrant, they will know where to come for quick 
relief. The extraction of that tooth has saved 
another victim from the opium habit. 


An old man walks slowly into the waiting- 
room. He is a Christian. But a short time ago 
his sons brought him to the hospital. He was 
suffering with an abscess of the liver. For days 
his life hung in the balance. Now he can walk 
about. He greets every one with a smile of 
gladness. As we minister to the other patients, 
we hear him among the waiting ones, telling 
how good God has been to him. He will do as 
much good as a gifted evangelist, for has he not 
been sick and is now almost well ? He is show- 
ing the patients a ** sample " of what God is do- 
ing through the medical missionary. 

A woman and a little child come in together. 
They are groping their way and peering out of 
their dim eyes to locate the doctor. Both are 
blinded by opaque scars on their eyes, the result 
of chronic ulceration. Dirt was the primary 
cause. It is hard to tell them that their cases are 
hopeless. Had they come earlier they might 
have been helped, but was there a doctor and a 
dispensary there when the trouble began ? An 
old lady, also blind, follows them. There is some 
hope for her. If she will submit to a surgical 
operation and have those cataracts removed from 
her eyes she can see once more. A man with 
reddened eyeballs is the next patient. Dirt is 
the primary factor in this case, too. Chronic in- 
flammation has scarred the inner surface of the 
eyelids until the eyelash has been drawn in and 


now mechanically irritates the eye. If he does 
not allow the surgeon to remedy the condition, 
he, too, will soon be blind. 

Another group enters the gate of the hospital 
yard carrying a woman on a rude litter. A 
crowd gather about the new arrival as her 
bearers place the litter under the shadow of the 
veranda. We join the crowd. Her twitching 
face, spasms over her entire body tell us she is 
in the extreme stages of hydrophobia. 

" Where did the dog bite her ? " asks one of the 

" Oh, the dog did not bite her flesh. He just 
tore her clothing." 

Can we bluntly tell them that the woman has 
positively no real hydrophobia, that she is 
simply suffering from fear? Would that we 
might be able to do so and thus convince the 
patient of her error. The Chinese believe that 
even though only the clothing is torn the virus is 
imparted to the party attacked. Do what we 
can, we cannot turn back the flood of error which 
has carried this woman into the last stages of 
this dread condition. She is too far gone. We 
turn away with a heavy heart to attend to the 
needs of other patients. There are some things 
the missionary doctor cannot do. A few days 
later we are told that the woman is dead. 

Who is next? Some friends lead us to a 
woman sitting in the corner of the waiting-room. 


Anxiety is expressed in her countenance. Her 
face is elongated. She seems in a pitiable 

''What is the matter?" 

She tries to speak but her utterance is indis- 
tinct and her friends answer for her. " She was 
sitting outside the door the other evening talking. 
She yawned as we often do when sleepy. Some- 
thing caught and she has been unable to close 
her mouth since. She cannot eat or talk and it 
aches constantly unless we give her an opiate." 

She has dislocated her lower jaw. The med- 
ical assistant slips his thumbs into her mouth, 
presses down on the lower teeth, the jaw slips 
into place and the look on that woman's face is 
worth going across the ocean to see. One 
woman came to the dispensary who had been in 
such a condition for six months. The old point 
of articulation had been destroyed by disuse and 
the jaw had become fixed in its new position. 
Nothing but a severe operation could relieve her 
and the means were not at hand for performing 
it. She would have to pass through life with 
both jaws immovable and all use of her teeth 
lost. Could she have come to us when the acci- 
dent occurred she could easily have been cured. 

A boy comes in with his fingers spread apart 
and his arms held away from contact with his 
body. Scabies is another disease which flour- 
ishes where bathing facilities are lacking. The 


Chinese have no sulphur to cure and no knowl- 
edge of how to escape contracting the disease. 
In America it is a source of humiliation to the 
patient and a source of amusement to his friends. 
In China it is a source of death. The disease, 
unchecked, spreads over the body, setting up 
abscesses by its poison and the patient may die 
of sepsis. The giving of a little sulphur oint- 
ment in China may mean the saving of a life. 

Another group is calling for assistance. They 
are better clothed than the ordinary and their 
trouble has arisen by reason of their superior 
condition. One of their number has been under 
the treatment of a Chinese physician. The lat- 
ter has used the usual method of acupuncture. 
Unfortunately for the Chinese doctor, — and the 
patient, the needle has been broken off just be- 
neath the skin. He could thrust in the needle, 
but to extract the broken piece is beyond his 
power. So in their desperation and helplessness 
they have been driven to the foreign doctor. 
The broken end of the needle can be felt just be- 
neath the skin. We inject a local anesthetic and 
soon present the patient and his friends the lost 
portion of the needle. Since they are rich 
enough to call a Chinese physician we are per- 
fectly willing to accept a proper fee for our serv- 
ices. Why should we not ? Have we not done 
what a Chinese physician was unable to do ? 

The Chinese are afflicted with such a variety 


of digestive troubles. That they all drink hot 
tea and no cold water and that they cook nearly 
all the food used is doubtless the reason they are 
not swept off the face of the earth by pestilence. 
Each summer vast numbers of little children die 
as the result of injudicious eating and drinking. 
A hungry stomach will accept an article for food 
that a full one would reject in disgust. Rice is 
the principal food in Central China. Vegetables, 
meats, fish, etc., are treated as relishes. That 
which is cast away by the wealthier becomes food 
for the poorer classes. *' All is fish that comes 
to the Chinaman's net." Be the animal freshly 
butchered or one that has died of disease, there 
is always some one ready for the feast, some one 
who will claim any part not desired by others 
who might have first claim and choice. 

Thus all forms of digestive disturbances, from 
mere irritation to violent ptomaine poisoning, 
appear at the door of the dispensary. One says 
he has a ball in his stomach ; another, a worm ; 
a third cannot swallow ; the stomach of a fourth 
is swollen and tense ; and a fifth case may even 
claim to have a turtle wiggling around inside. 
Such may be their description of their cases but 
to the doctor falls the difficult task of ascertain- 
ing what these patients really mean and then 
finding the remedial agent which will heal or re- 
lieve. When a man is starving to death it is not 
medicine which he needs. 


Patients suffering from many other varieties of 
troubles stray in. There are many who can be 
cured only by long and careful treatment. There 
are many who cannot command the proper en- 
vironment for healing. Some cannot be cured 
at all. Daily is the heart of the doctor wrung 
within him. The surgeon must follow a skillful 
operation with an all-night vigil before he can 
bring some patient up from the jaws of death. 
An American physician once said, " We have so 
many hopeless cases, so many pitiful ones, that 
if it were not for the cases which we can and do 
relieve, we could well wish we had never seen 
the inside of a medical college." 

The cases which the missionary doctor does 
heal and relieve are the ones which hold him to 
his post. Standing daily in the midst of suffer- 
ing humanity, cooling fevered brows and com- 
forting troubled hearts, the doctor finds his suffi- 
cient joy. If he were not there they would have 
no one else to whom they might turn for aid. 
Having once stood in that place of healing, the 
doctor could not leave them if he would. 

Some day the doctor will be travelling over 
the country far away from that Chinese city he 
calls " home." He will be entering some village 
whose attitude is very hostile to the foreigner. 
Some one will step out from that mob and lead 
the doctor into his home. He will show the 
doctor such honour as he would to a prince. 


Then he will turn to the hostile crowd and tell 
them how when he was sick and in trouble, this 
doctor came to him, took him into his hospital 
and healed him. Then the doctor will feel a little 
of that thrill of joy which must come to him who 
hears the words, " Well done, thou good and 
faithful servant. Enter thou into the joy of thv 
Lord.'' ^ ^ ^ 



AN old man and his wife who had been re- 
duced to beggary by disease were found 
sitting at the gate of our medical com- 
pound. The woman, while a girl, had attracted 
the attention of a rich man by her beauty and had 
been taken by him as a secondary wife. From 
him she contracted disease which destroyed her 
beauty and, to a large extent, shut out the world 
from her. Her hearing was gone, articulation of 
speech was lost, one eye was destroyed and her 
face was left scarred and deformed. The rich 
man had lost all interest in her and sent her back 
to her parents. 

A few years later this old man, then a strong, 
active stone-mason, came through the town where 
her parents lived. He wanted a wife but had little 
money to spend. He could get her cheap and 
so took her for his wife. Her disease was trans- 
mitted to him ; he fell sick and his strength was 
taken away. For several years they had begged 
from door to door. 

It took them eight days to walk the twenty- 
five miles to our hospital. They sat at our gate 



begging, not for money, but for healing. They 
had no money to pay for treatment or for food 
while being treated. It costs only one dollar a 
month to board the ordinary patient, so we de- 
cided to reward the faith that had brought them 
to us. The woman was beyond the reach of 
medicine but able to help herself. We could not 
give back to her lost hearing or lost tissue. So 
we turned our attention to her lamed and weak- 
ened husband. Slowly his strength came back 
and his sores were healed. 

He would sit in the chapel at the morning 
worship, but he seemed so ignorant that it did 
not seem possible for him to comprehend much 
of the Gospel story. On Sundays he would hob- 
ble over to the church services. One day he asked 
for baptism. Of course we were surprised. But 
when we questioned him we found that while he 
could not repeat the Scriptures or read them, yet 
the essence of the Gospel had reached his heart 
and he knew in whom he was believing. He had 
comprehended the spirit of Christ and henceforth 
became His follower. 

When he was nearly well again, he went out 
to one of the old buildings over the city gates, a 
place given over to beggars. There he parti- 
tioned off a corner and set up a litde home. He 
returned to his old trade and began to earn his 
living once more. 

One day we had some work needing the serv- 


ices of a common labourer and called him to do 
it. He worked away diligently for a week. At 
the end of the time we brought the cash to pay 
him and poured it into his hands. He looked 
down at it and up at us with a troubled expression. 

*' Doctor, I do not like to take this money, for 
I feel that to take it is sinning against you, — or 
God, I do not know which." 

It was his pay. He had done faithful work. 
Why should he not feel right about taking it ? 
He was a poor man and lived by the labour of 
his hands. He could not live without wages. 

** Doctor," he said again, '' I came here four 
years ago, a broken-down, lame beggar. You 
healed me and gave me two good legs, so that I 
can work again like any other man. It was here 
that I learned about my Saviour and began to 
follow Him. All that I have and hope to have, 
has come through your ministries to me. Now, 
to take pay for this little amount of work, which 
I would gladly do to show my appreciation for 
what you have done for me, — it does not seem 
right. I feel that I am doing wrong to take it." 
Who would want to say that this man had not 
comprehended the spirit of the Gospel ? 

A poor farmer ran a thorn into his heel. The 
entire heel became inflamed. Gangrene set in 
and the flesh sloughed off. In this condition he 
entered the " beggars' ward " of the hospital in 
Nanking. He stayed there for some months and 


the wound slowly healed. Then he went out and 
became a beggar on the street. The foot be- 
came worse and he came back to the hospital. 
In his leisure time he picked up copies of the 
Gospels and began learning to read. In a few 
months he was able to read large parts of the 
New Testament. He asked for baptism and after 
a proper length of time in which he showed his 
sincerity, he was admitted to church membership. 

He began propagating the Gospel among the 
other patients in the beggars' ward. In a short 
time he found a welcome at the bedside of other 
patients. As a direct result of his work in the 
hospital, not less than seventy people were bap- 

In the northern part of Kiang-su province a 
missionary, while itinerating through a portion of 
the country hitherto unvisited by foreigners, was 
attacked by a mob who pelted him with mud and 
brickbats. He hurried along the street looking 
for a way of escape. A well-dressed Chinaman, 
who was standing at the door of a fine native 
house, saw him coming around the corner and, 
opening the door of the house, pulled him inside 
and shut the door upon the rabble. 

The Chinaman apologized for the boys in true 
oriental style and asked the missionary if he would 
be willing to tell him and his friends about the 
" foreigners' Gospel." As "long as he could stay 
in the place the missionary was royally entertained 


and kept busy preaching to the host and his 
friends. A congregation of believers in that city 
is the result. 

When the missionary asked his host the reason 
for thus befriending him and requesting the Gos- 
pel to be preached in his home, the Chinaman 
told the following story. Some years before, he 
had been in Shanghai on business. He fell sick 
and spent all his money. His landlord was about 
to turn him into the street when, through the in- 
tervention of friends, he was taken to Dr. Boone's 
hospital. The tender, sympathetic attention there 
received led him to listen to the Gospel. When 
he returned to his home he had carried away a 
desire to know more of this " heavenly doctrine," 
a desire he had treasured for twelve years with 
the above result. 

Late one afternoon Dr. Macklin and A. E. Cory, 
two missionaries from Nanking, entered a market 
town, two hundred and fifty miles north of their 
home station. Tired with their long day's ride 
they dismounted and led their horses up the street 
looking for an inn where they might spend the 
night. No friendly innkeeper asked them to come 
in. All of their requests for lodging were met 
with a cold " no room." It was too late to ride 
on to the next village, and they might receive no 
better treatment if they did. What should they do ? 

Mr. Cory held the horses while the doctor 
stepped across the street to try his tact upon one 


of the obdurate innkeepers. A well-dressed 
Chinese came leisurely along the street, picking 
his way over the rough cobblestones. At the 
sight of the usual crowd gathered around the 
horses he looked up and discovered the foreigner 
in the midst. 

" Why, you are a foreigner," he exclaimed in 

*^ You are not wrong," wearily answered the 
missionary in Chinese idiom. 

"Where are you from?" He seemed inter- 

** Nanking." The missionary did not feel like 
talking. He wondered if the man would ask him 
if his saddle was made of leather, and what his 
shoes cost, and why he wore collars, and if they 
had the same sun and moon in America. They 
usually asked such foolish questions as these. 

*' Nanking ! " was his next exclamation. " Do 
you know Dr. Macklin ? " 

"There he is over across the street." 

The Chinaman walked across the street, got 
down on his knees before the astonished doctor 
and knocked his head on the ground in the true 
Chinese kotow. What was the matter? Four 
years ago he had taken his sick son to the doctor's 
hospital at Nanking where he was cured of his 
disease. The man had never forgotten the kind- 
ness there received. This was the first oppor- 
tunity he had had to express his appreciation. He 


took the missionaries to his own home and set be- 
fore them the best that could be found in the town. 
His house was turned temporarily into a speaking 
hall and he himself reinforced the words of the 
missionaries by telling his fellow townsmen of 
what he had received and learned while at Nan- 
king in the doctor's hospital. 

A little fellow with hip joint disease, was brought 
to our hospital by his relatives. His father was 
dead and his mother had remarried and moved to 
a distant place. His trouble being of tubercular 
origin, the prognosis at best was doubtful. Should 
he recover he must still be a cripple for life. His 
mother was far away and his relatives had little 
love to waste upon him. His was a lonely, hope- 
less existence. 

In the hospital his leg was daily dressed with 
tender care. The assistants watched over him. 
We fed him milk and gave him flowers. Simple 
books that he could read and bright pictures 
brought him daily pleasure. Such a case, for 
both patient and doctor, is a long and weary fight. 
One day, when he was seeming to grow steadily 
worse with little hope of ultimate recovery, we 
asked him, should he not recover, whether he 
would prefer going back to the home of his rela- 
tives or stay with us in the hospital. 

"I know," he said, "that my relatives could 
not and would not care for me as you treat me 
here. But more than that, Mr. Tsu (the medical 


assistant) has been teaching me about Jesus Christ 
and I would like to learn more about Him." 

Thus another little life has had his burden 
lightened by the ministry of the Christian hospital. 
In his body has been worked out the contrast be- 
tween heathen indifTerence towards, and Christian 
sympathy for, the suffering and neglected little 

After the missionary doctor has established a 
reputation among the Chinese as a successful 
operator, he finds it necessary to be careful as to 
what procedure he recommends a patient. Those 
who have come under the influence of his minis- 
try learn to trust him implicitly. Has he not 
saved their lives and the lives of their relatives 
when there was none other recourse ? With the 
utmost faith in him they lie down upon the table 
for an operation that may mean life or death. 

One old lady came to Dr. Hart of Wuhu. She 
came only as a last resort for she had no regard 
for foreigners or their religion. Cancer of the 
breast was rapidly carrying her towards her grave. 
The operation was a successful one. While she 
lay convalescing in the hospital, she had time to 
see and time to think and hear. She gave herself 
to Christ and went back to her distant home a 

Five years later she came again. The same 
trouble in the form of an axillary tumour had 
developed. With perfect confidence she made 


the second journey to the hospital and placed 
herself under the doctor whom she probably 
loved next to her Saviour. 

On the morning of the operation she walked 
into the room with a bright smile and lay down 
to sleep upon the table. For three hours the 
doctor worked among a most intricate network 
of blood-vessels and nerves to reach the root of 
the tumour. Her life hung by a tiny thread. But 
again strength was granted her and she went 
home with another lease of life. Is it any won- 
der that the Chinese, under such conditions, come 
to almost worship the missionary doctor ? 

Yet he cannot save all who come. So long 
has prejudice against foreign innovations been 
rooted in the hearts of the Chinese that only ter- 
rible pain or hastening dissolution of the body 
will drive them to the doctor's door. There are 
cases of disease which have been neglected so 
long that the body has become deformed, or new 
growths implanted, or poison has been dissem- 
inated through the system. The patient has 
come perhaps a hundred miles of weary road 
hoping that the missionary doctor might bring 
life and strength back to his broken body. It is 
hard under such conditions to shake the head and 
render a hopeless verdict. 

And still, even in such instances, the hospital 
has its influence. There will gather around 
them in the hospital enclosure, the patients who 


are staying in the hospital. These will tell the 
disappointed one of the wonderful cures the 
doctor is performing in other kinds of diseases. 
They will also tell of the tenderness and sympathy 
with which they are all being treated. And that 
patient will go back to his distant home with a 
dim vision of a Gospel of hope and love. Per- 
haps to his friends, gathering about him in the 
eventide, he will tell of the lame who have 
walked, of the blind that have been made to see, 
of the opium sot who has come away clean and 
that to all who visit that hospital there is pointed 
out a way whereby men may escape eternal death. 
He will tell, perhaps in a distorted way, of a 
heavenly Official, who loves men and has sent a 
"Jesus," who died that men might live; and how 
these foreigners say that they are doing this 
work not for merit's sake but because this same 
Jesus has asked them to help the suffering ones 
in China. Only God knows how far extends the 
power of His Gospel through the healing agency 
of the mission hospital. 



DOWN in South China near Foochow is 
a village of a thousand inhabitants. 
Missionaries have preached in that vil- 
lage for many years with scant results. Not 
long ago four opium smokers went down to Dr. 
Wilkinson's hospital at Foochow and were cured 
of the habit. One of them secreted some of the 
anti-opium pills given him at the hospital and 
when he reached home gave them to his wife 
and cured her of opium smoking also. All of 
them straightened up, regained their former 
elasticity and looked like new men. 

A reformed smoker had up to this time never 
been seen in that village. The head men called 
a council, made up a purse of fifty dollars and 
through the local Christians, sent down a petition 
to Dr. Wilkinson. With the petition they sent a 
committee and a sedan chair. The doctor was 
invited to bring up to the village such retinue 
and remedial agents as should be necessary. 
The head men would agree to gather into their 
largest ancestral hall all the opium smokers of 
the village and give all possible aid to the doctor 



in breaking these of their habit and driving 
opium out of the village. 

Dr. Wilkinson consented to the agreement and 
found upon arrival a group of eighty men and 
nine women awaiting his ministrations. The in- 
fluential men in the place took upon themselves 
the duty of aids to the doctor and right faithfully 
they carried out his orders. Every house and 
store was thrown open to his search. By their 
request he confiscated all opium and opium ac- 
cessories found. They sent a petition to their 
district magistrate and secured an edict forever 
prohibiting the sale or smoking of opium in the 
village. In every way they cooperated with the 
doctor and held up his hands. 

Two of the patients scaled the walls of the an- 
cestral hall and banished themselves from the 
village. One feeble old man, who had used the 
drug for thirty-five years, was too feeble to en- 
dure the strain but he was tenderly nursed 
through the closing days of his life and in a few 
weeks passed away. With his death there passed 
out of the town the last opium smoker. 

The remainder of the patients were taken 
through the three weeks allotted for the work. 
Those were strenuous days. Sometimes a patient 
would sullenly refuse the medicine. Upon the 
person of another would be found secreted pills 
of opium. Some other inhabitant of the town 
would be located who had taken the drug so 


covertly that he had escaped the vigilance of his 
own townsmen. Day would be turned into 
night and night into day by the calls and moans 
of the distressed patients, now awakening from 
their long " opium sleep." Disease had started 
most of them into the drug habit and now, with 
the opium withdrawn, was remanifesting itself 
and demanding the attention of the doctor. 

Realizing that unless a moral uplift accom- 
panied the physical one, the effect of the work 
would be largely neutralized. Dr. Wilkinson 
made the religious teaching a prominent feature. 
Both foreign and Chinese evangelists aided him. 
In the presence of the ancestral tablets of thirty 
generations in that great hall, the saving powder 
of Christ was taught in daily worship. The 
elders and influential men of the village joined in 
these services. 

When the three weeks were over and the 
patients released to return to their homes, a great 
service of thanksgiving was held in the former 
chapel. It was too small for the crowds that 
pressed in. It continued to be filled at later serv- 
ices and a larger place was secured. The 
Church had become a power in the town. 

Six months later a census of the ex-opium 
smokers was taken and it was found that only 
one had returned to his pipe. Of the rest for ty- 
three had enrolled themselves as enquirers and 
were seeking to be Christians. The village was 


clear of its former plague and prospering as it 
had not for generations. 

During the next few years in China this ex- 
periment will be repeated many times. There 
are probably 40,000,000 opium smokers in the 
empire. The throne has put out an edict that 
the traffic must cease within the next ten years. 
Opium dens must close and farmers must cease 
to grow the poppy. The campaign has begun 
in many districts accompanied with great patri- 
otic demonstrations. Foochow has closed three 
thousand dens on her streets. Shanghai has put 
out an edict to accomplish the same end. The 
people are ready for the change and demanding 
that the edict be carried into effect. For some 
years medical missionaries have found the opium 
refuge in constant demand and many smokers 
have gone out of the mission refuges testifying 
to the efficacy of the treatment received. 
Through surgical operations and medical relief 
given the mission hospital and dispensary has 
opened thousands of homes to the Gospel. 
What a marvellous opportunity is here pre- 
sented ! 

Chinese physicians have no means of coping 
with the terrible evil and some foreign and Chi- 
nese druggists have intensified the problem by 
placing upon the Chinese market everywhere 
an anti-opium pill which contains morphine. A 
smoker has lost all his own will-power and is 


helpless in the bonds of the habit. Not one in a 
thousand could, unaided, conquer the craving, if 
he should try. To the three hundred medical 
missionaries in China there has been opened a 
great and effectual door. Upon their shoulders 
will fall the burden of this stupendous task in- 
augurated by the government. 

The effect of the drug upon its victims is to 
make them strangely inconsistent and wholly un- 
reliable. It debases their moral nature. A man 
comes to the refuge really desiring to break away 
from the curse, yet he must be searched for opium 
pills which he has secreted upon his person. 
Often an extra payment as a guarantee of good 
faith is demanded to compel the observance of 
the necessary regulations. This is returned to 
the man when he leaves, — unless he has left too 
soon by the short route of over the wall at night. 

The hold of the drug upon its victim is worse 
than alcohol. He must have his pipe every day 
and two or three times every day. Every day he 
must waste two or three hours upon the opium 
couch. He has to neglect his business. If his 
profits do not amount to a sufficient sum he must 
mortgage or sell his property to satisfy his crav- 
ing for the drug. It is the curse of market towns 
where most of the business is done on market 
days. These places have usually two days in 
every ten in which the farmers from the sur- 
rounding country will gather in to do their buy- 


ing and bartering. The remainder of the time is 
spent by the shopkeepers in lounging, gambling 
and smoking. The larger cities are cursed only 
in lesser proportion. 

Medical missionaries have followed two meth- 
ods in curing these patients. Those who have 
the time and money and those who have been 
using large amounts of the drug, are treated by 
gradually lessening the amount of the drug as 
the patient increases in strength under the influ- 
ence of the hospital treatment. The majority of 
patients treated have little time and less money. 
These have their opium cut off at once and are 
only given doses of morphine at periods when 
the craving becomes uncontrollable. In the latter 
cases if the patient has not been using excessive 
quantities of the drug, the craving will disappear 
in three days. The physician has then before 
him the problem of overcoming manifestations of 
latent disease which the drug had been keeping in 
partial abeyance and the building up of a weak- 
ened body. 

Those first three days are days of agony for 
the patient and days of wearying watchfulness on 
the part of the physician and his assistants. The 
patient has little control over himself and at any 
moment he may throw discretion to the winds 
and seek relief by escape to the opium den. In- 
tense restlessness, weakness of the heart and 
muscles, numbness of the limbs, sleeplessness, 


rheumatic pains, and an agonizing distress in the 
gastric region, are some of the torments endured. 

How to control the mind of the patient is the 
key to all treatment. The same drug must be 
prepared in various forms. Electricity, massage, 
hot-water bags, sweat baths, appeals, commands 
and hypnotic suggestion find their part in the 
curative process. Flowers, books, pictures, the 
gramophone, the stereopticon, teaching of prayer, 
singing of hymns, and religious instruction all 
come into play in turning the patient's thoughts 
away from self and to Him who is able to keep 
unto the uttermost. 

The implanting of a moral ambition is an ab- 
solute essential to the complete cure of a patient. 
The opium dens lining the streets, the smell of 
opium filling the air, the knowledge of the power 
of opium to relieve pain and the tempter offering 
the pipe while business is being transacted, are 
too strong an allurement to be resisted by the 
nerve tracks of one who has long been under the 
spell of the drug. When the claims of manhood 
and the hopes of eternity enter into consideration, 
the battle is half won. 

Two young men came into our refuge. One 
used an ounce of the raw drug daily and the 
other was consuming six-tenths of an ounce. 
Both passed out of the hospital cured of their 
craving although it was at the cost of extreme 
suffering. Both were business heads of their re- 


spective clans and had to be on the street much 
of their time. A business transaction in China 
calls for the pipe as one in America calls for the 
cigars or a drink. They both fell. One came 
back twice to overcome the craving but it is 
doubtful if either ever wholly conquered. 

A woman was brought to us by her husband, — 
or the man who claimed to be her husband. She 
had smoked for a number of years. There is a 
looseness in marital relations among the peasant 
classes that is not to be commended. After she 
was first married her husband discovered her 
craving for the drug. She was too expensive a 
luxury for him to support and so at his first op- 
portunity he turned her over to another man for 
a small sum of money. This operation had been 
repeated until she had been the wife of nine men. 
The last one had heard of the opium refuge and 
conceived the idea of compelling her to break 
the habit. 

He left one of his daughters-in-law to care for 
the woman, while she remained under our care. 
The woman persuaded the daughter-in-law to go 
out secretly and buy opium for her. At the end 
of the allotted time the husband came down to 
take his wife home only to find her still addicted 
to the drug. He persuaded us to allow her to 
remain in a little longer while he stayed with her 
himself. This time the cure was effective. But 
with no moral influence controlling her, such a 


woman will return to her pipe when the restrain- 
ing watchfulness of her husband is relaxed. 

Contrast with these the following cases. A 
young Chinese had listened to the Gospel and 
changed his life until nothing but his opium 
craving stood between him and his fully obeying 
Christ. He plead with the missionary to aid him 
in overcoming the habit. The missionary had 
no experience in such a line of work and hesitated 
about attempting the task. The Chinese said 
that if the missionary would just give him a room 
and lock him in it, he would willingly make him- 
self a prisoner in order to overcome the craving 
and become a Christian. It was finally done. 
Food and drink were furnished him and prayer 
was daily made in his behalf. The young man 
fought the battle through and has been a stead- 
fast, consistent Christian ever since. 

Evangelist Shi Gwei-biao of the Christian 
Mission in the Yangtse valley is a striking ex- 
ample of the power of Christ to save and keep a 
man from the curse of opium. He was a brilliant 
story-teller, earning large sums of money on the 
streets and at festivals. For twenty years he 
travelled over the country. He spent his money 
as fast as he earned it — all at the feet of the opium 
demon. He fell into complete beggary and as- 
sociated with his fellow kind, living under bridge 
arches and broken ruins. 

A copy of the Gospel of Mark accidentally fell 


into his hands. He used its stories to replenish 
his stock in trade. The life of a convert to Chris- 
tianity here and there attracted his attention and 
the vitality of the Gospel, as revealed in their 
lives, drew him to Christ. Had not that light 
come to his soul, his physical nature, so long out- 
raged, would not have granted him the now 
twenty years of life he has so nobly spent in the 
service of the Master. 

It is an axiom that an opium smoker cannot be 
a Christian. So the determination to break away 
from his pipe was the natural outcome of his de- 
sire to follow Christ. In Dr. Macklin's hospital 
Shi conquered and fell, conquered and fell, until 
the conception of the power of prayer led him to 
his knees before the Lord where he gained his 
final victory. That experience in the school of 
prayer has led to his winning nearly threescore of 
men and women to Christ. 

Heretofore heathenism, feeling no responsibil- 
ity of brotherhood, placed no barrier in the way 
of any evil which might seek entrance into China. 
Opium found little moral opposition to its des- 
troying progress through the empire. From the 
buying of India's crop China proceeded to the 
planting of her own poppies until she made her 
supply of cereals inadequate to feed her starving 

The Anti-Opium League, an organization orig- 
inated and fostered by missionaries, has pub- 


lished and scattered literature in Europe, America 
and China. This society has carried on a 
campaign among the Chinese which has finally- 
culminated in the famous Opium Edict. The 
leaders of the people and the people themselves 
are now rising up and demanding its enforce- 
ment. Opium smoking officials and others who 
derive profit from the sale of the drug, are its op- 
posers. But every paper brings accounts of the 
growing sentiment for the carrying out of the 
edict. The day is coming when China will be as 
free of opium as is Japan ; and the day is also 
coming when in China as in America there will 
be recognized the responsibility of brotherhood. 



THE term ** compound ' ' is applied through- 
out the Orient to any piece of ground 
used by foreigners, which is enclosed by 
walls and upon which are erected buildings. The 
term is supposed to have been derived from a 
Malayan word meaning enclosure. The mission- 
ary compound may contain buildings for the mis- 
sionary's home, kitchens, both foreign and 
Chinese, servants' quarters, stables, hospital, 
school, or chapel, according to the needs of the 

The erection of mission buildings in a Chinese 
city means permanency of Christian influence in 
that city and surrounding district. Henceforth 
those buildings are to be an important factor in 
the city's history. They will affect every interest 
in the government, morals and religion. They 
will stand as a silent rebuke to graft, official in- 
justice, immorality and idolatry. They will be- 
come synonyms for the Gospel in healing and 
education, hope and love. 

The boundary wall is from seven to nine feet 
high. It gives security, prevents pilfering and 
grants privacy. A Chinese thief will rarely climb 



over the wall of a foreign compound. If he can- 
not come through the gate, he will prefer to oper- 
ate elsewhere. The wall, shutting out undesir- 
able characters, causes light fingered servants to 
be more cautious about the disappearance of 
small things. It makes them responsible for the 
things in their charge and insures a minimum 
loss to the missionary. The Chinese have a 
superabundance of curiosity. Among them- 
selves they have little privacy. When they have 
been given opportunity, they have crowded into 
the mission compound and violated every right 
of privacy which Anglo-Saxons hold so dear. 

The boundary wall also hedges back the im- 
morality and contagions which flourish in every 
heathen city. Outside the compound vice and 
immodesty walk abroad with shameless publicity. 
Year by year smallpox, cholera and fevers sweep 
off the Chinese people. The missionary home 
has little children growing up within its gates. 
Those children have the same rights to moral 
purity and protection from contagion which chil- 
dren in Christian lands enjoy. 

The compound is a haven of rest to the mis- 
sionaries. When a long day of conflict with 
strange tongue and alien customs has closed, 
tired nature demands relaxation for mind and 
body. Then this little oasis in the great moral 
desert of heathenism becomes a sweet resting 
place. It is the missionaries' only refuge. There 


with their little ones, the father and mother can 
throw ofif the restraint under which they have 
been labouring all day and find peace. 

The compound walls enclose an acre of 
ground, more or less. The home is placed near 
the centre. The other buildings are ranged 
near the walls. The intervening space is filled 
with flowers and vegetable garden, fruit and 
shade trees, grape arbours, lawn tennis and cro- 
quet grounds. Missionaries endeavour to trans- 
plant a counterpart of the home-land surround- 
ings into the heart of an alien country. It 
makes the burden of the work lighter and bears 
a peculiar lesson to the Chinese people. 

The boundaries of the place may be very ir- 
regular. A grave may be near the edge and 
the wall will have to be built around it. Graves 
are found everywhere in China. An irrigating 
ditch which has to follow the undulations of the 
ground may;determine a part of the boundary. A 
well dug long ago by a syndicate of neighbours, 
may have been placed just on the line. Being 
common property, the missionary finds it diffi- 
cult to obtain possession of it. It is less nerve- 
racking to build an unsightly crooked boundary 
wall than to wait for the termination of endless 
bargainings and wranglings over rights and prices. 
Brick is the cheapest and most enduring build- 
ing material obtainable. Those used in the 
boundary wall are an inch thick by four inches 


wide and eight inches long. One course is laid 
flat ; the next is laid on edge with cross brick for 
binding the wall together. This makes a box- 
like formation which is filled with broken brick 
or mud, making a very enduring and solid wall. 
Such a wall costs about three dollars and a half 
per ten feet, the contractor furnishing all materials. 

The house is built of regular size building 
brick. These cost less than four dollars a thou- 
sand. They are usually of an ash or smoke 
colour but are quite as solid as the American 
brick. Ningpo carpenters and masons who have 
had large experience in the erection of foreign 
buildings, have done most of the building work 
in the Yangtse valley. They make contracts to 
erect the buildings. They use local men to do the 
work, they themselves acting as overseers. The 
missionary is usually his own architect. The best 
masons and carpenters will receive perhaps 
twenty-five cents a day while the common labourer 
will be given six cents and his food. The mis- 
sionary must watch over every brick and timber 
as the contractor will be gone much of the time 
and the workmen are past masters in the art of 
doing work not according to the plans laid down. 
Exactness is a lost art to them. 

The missionary home with ground and accom- 
panying buildings, will perhaps cost $3,000 in 
American money. The plant is the property of 
the missionary society and is built with the idea 


of permanency. Missionaries may be changed 
from station to station as emergencies arise. 
They may have to return to their native land by 
reason of failing health or may die, but the work 
goes on and some one else comes to occupy the 
home. The compound and the new church 
built up in one of their cities are the two perma- 
nent factors on the mission field in China. 

It is strange how many servants will gather 
about a mission home. There are the cook and 
the wash-boy, the gateman and the cow-man, 
maybe a house woman and a mail-boy. But 
what are the missionaries to do ? The city has 
no corner grocery or meat market with telephone 
and delivery wagon. There are no laundry man, 
coal-yard, dressmaker, hardware or department 
store as we know them in the home land. Only 
recently has it been that interior places had the 
luxury of the imperial post-office. But the whole 
retinue of servants do not demand more than is 
paid to a single American servant and they 
board themselves. The cook is paid about four 
dollars a month. The others vary from two to 
three dollars. 

If a chicken, a fish, or an egg is needed, the 
cook must go out on the street and hunt about 
until he locates some one who has the article to 
sell. Many articles in common use cannot be 
found ready made and each must be bargained 
for. It takes time to talk price. Commodities 


of which a quantity is needed, must be ordered 
in advance and are delivered a little at a time. 
It keeps the cook busy. The cooking of food is 
the least of his troubles. 

The wash-boy washes and irons the clothes (in- 
cluding the collars and shirts), cleans the floors 
and windows and runs errands. The gateman 
keeps out undesirable characters, introduces vis- 
itors, hoes in the garden and saws the wood. 
The house woman aids in the mending and sew- 
ing, does the chamber work and w^atches over 
the children in their ramblings. 

And the cow-man, what does he do? Why 
does a missionary keep cows ? Why does he 
not buy milk of the Chinese ? And if he is going 
to keep cows why cannot the wash-boy, or the 
gateman, or the cook, be persuaded to milk 
them? In the first place, the Chinese do not 
drink milk, eat butter or milk cows. They use 
them for plow animals. In the second place, 
there are no fenced lots for pasture. Some one 
must watch them while they are feeding lest they 
destroy surrounding gardens. In the third place, 
Chinese cows have never had their milking 
qualities developed and give about as much milk 
as a goat, hence a considerable dairy must be 
kept to supply milk and butter for an ordinary 
family. So many cannot be tied out as might be 
done with one cow in an American town. There- 
fore, some one must be delegated to look after the 


cows, some one whose perpetual business is to 
care for them. There are between ten and 
twenty head of big and little cattle in the mis- 
sionary's ordinary herd. 

But if a goat will give as much as a cow, why 
not keep goats? Some missionaries do and 
they find them as troublesome as a herd of cows. 
The only difference is the amount of money in- 
vested. The Chinese eat pork and very little 
beef. One tires of chicken and fish when these 
become the daily diet. When the Chinese do 
have beef for sale it is that of an animal that has 
grown too old for service. So each winter, from 
his own herd, the missionary can supply this lack 
and know the quality of the meat he is eating. 

The truth is, condensed milk and canned but- 
ter (oleomargarine) cost as much as the entire 
expense of a dairy, including the wages of the 
cow-man. Pasture costs little. During the short 
winter months one only needs stables, some rice 
straw and a little grain. During the summer the 
cow-man's wages are the only expense. 

The Chinese have no tomatoes, cabbages, 
cauliflower, beets, parsnips or squashes. Neither 
have they grape-vines or berry bushes. These 
readily grow in the Chinese soil and it is a 
pleasure and profit to introduce them. They 
have figs, little yellow cherries, persimmons, 
pomegranates, pears and peaches, but even these 
are rarely all seen in one region, — except by the 


work of the missionary. So the compound be- 
comes an exhibit of horticulture, bearing its les- 
son to the Chinese and ministering to the health 
of the missionary family. 

Sweet-williams, pansies, carnations and many 
other of our flowers were never seen in China 
until the missionary planted them there. When 
shade and fruit trees dot the yard, foreign and 
native flowers deck its borders and a lawn 
spreads over the intervening space (the Chinese 
never have lawns), the place becomes a beautiful 
soothing prospect to the heart and eyes of the 
dwellers there. // is home. 

The brick, the cows, and the servants are 
Chinese, to be sure, but all the remainder are 
matters of wonderful curiosity to the Chinese vis- 
itors who flock into that yard. The garden, the 
arrangement of the place, the plans of the house, 
even the timber in the house are foreign produc- 
tion. The matched flooring, doors, windows, 
joists and great roof timbers all grew on the 
slopes of Oregon and California. The Chinese 
have denuded their hills until they have very 
little valuable timber. Oregon pine is shipped 
to Shanghai in the form of great timbers. From 
there it is freighted up the Yangtse and rafted to 
interior points. It occupied many days of time 
for the Chinese sawyers with their slow method 
of hand labour to turn those timbers into doors 
and windows. 


But nothing pleases the natives better than the 
flowers. They look into the face of an innocent 
pansy and turning to the missionary ask, *' Where 
did you get them? Do you raise them from 
seed ? Is there any place we can buy the seed ?" 
We dig up a pansy, root and all, place it in the 
hands of the eager questioner and watch as it 
starts on its mission. The tiny flower is taken to 
a home where its strange face is viewed by all 
who come into the place. By and by the re- 
ceiver comes back. In his hands, or the hands 
of a servant, is borne a rose-bush, a chrysanthe- 
mum, or other native flower. A heart has been 
opened to the influence of the Gospel and the 
key was a pansy blossom. 

A poor old gardener comes frequently into our 
compound and moves among the curious flowers 
and shrubbery. He is a flower lover but he 
never asks for plants unless there are more than 
we will use. He never forgets the obligation. 
When some one in the foreign home is sick he 
will bring a full blooming aster, dahlia or zinnia. 
In the quiet of the evening we will sit on the rude 
bench at the door of his little hut and tell him of 
the One who loved the lilies and flowers of the 

Another feature of the compound in the in- 
terior are the horses and donkeys When jour- 
neys are to be taken, it is not easy to hire suit- 
able animals. So many are sore-backed and un- 


derfed. So the missionary must keep his own. 
While not in use upon the road, the donkeys be- 
come perambulators for the mission children. 
There are no smooth walks and streets upon 
which buggies and wagons can roll. Thus the 
donkey is brought into requisition and the chil- 
dren learn to ride before they are able to walk. 

The little two-year old baby, who is learning to 
speak Chinese as fast as she is lisping English, 
will go on a hunt for her favourite among the 
servants. '* Lao Wang, O yao chii lii-dz " (Old 
Wang, I want to ride the donkey), is her call. 
When she finds the man she will lead him to the 
stables and stand by while he fastens the basket- 
like saddle onto the donkey's back. Then she 
will reach up her arms to him and he will put her 
upon her throne. He is her abject slave and she 
is his little queen. They would risk their lives 
for these little ones. 

Do the missionaries eat with a bowl and chop- 
sticks ? Is the food cooked in Chinese style ? 
Just as it has been found unwise to live in the low, 
damp, unhealthy Chinese houses, so it has been 
demonstrated that it is better to eat food prepared 
similar to that which has been eaten in the home 
land. Missionaries learn to like an occasional 
meal cooked in Chinese style and the children 
enjoy it even more than the parents. Upon the 
itinerating journeys Chinese food is eaten exclu- 
sively. But the daily fare is the same as in the 


home land. The cook receives his education in 
the preparation of foods from the missionary- 
wife. He becomes proud of his ability to turn 
out foreign dishes. On special days like Thanks- 
giving and Christmas, he is in his glory. There 
will be company. He will have an opportunity 
to reveal to them his skill in preparing food which 
their servants cannot produce. Does it not all 
bring glory to his mistress who has taught 
him ? 

The garden, dairy and street furnish many 
things for the table. In the open ports, along the 
rivers and coast, Chinese have opened what are 
called compradore stores in which can be pur- 
chased many kinds of foreign goods. A servant 
and a donkey can be sent to these points for 
things lacking in the larder. The main things 
like sugar, salt, vinegar, canned goods, spices, 
breakfast foods, etc., are bought in large quanti- 
ties in Shanghai or by mail order from America. 
These stores are arranged upon the shelves in the 
lock room and stand ready for any emergency. 
Missionaries upon evangelizing trips or visiting 
other stations, visitors from across the seas study- 
ing missions, businessmen, railroad surveyors and 
government representatives are among the visitors 
who drop in upon the mission home at interior 
points. A glad welcome awaits them all. Vis- 
itors do not come that way every day. The lock 
room is made to yield up its secrets and in a litde 


time the visitors, be they two or ten, are called 
to a well-spread table. 

Somewhere about the place is likely to be found 
a workshop. It may be in the attic or in some 
side building. It is the magician's secret room 
from which are produced corner couches, little ta- 
bles, playthings for the children, window-seats, 
stools and other little articles so necessary in the 
house. Boxes which have brought goods from 
across the ocean, disappear into this workshop. 
They are carefully taken apart. That rough box 
lumber is precious in China. The same carpen- 
ters who built the house can make articles of fur- 
niture. Other pieces are bought in Shanghai and 
a few choice articles have come from the home 
land. But out of those boxes come the little de- 
tails which add to the convenience of the place. 
Perhaps a local carpenter has been taught how to 
produce these odd pieces and thus relieve the 
busy missionary, — but more of that in another 



THE Christian home, planted in the midst 
of heathenism, is one of the greatest 
evangelizing agencies known to Chris- 
tian missions. It is an exhibit of Christian 
civilization. The Christian man and woman, 
who occupy the missionary home, stand before 
God and their fellow men as equals. They find 
in each other's society, companionship and fel- 
lowship. They are capable of mutually counsel- 
ling and advising. Their every relationship is 
marked by the love of Christ. Heathenism has 
no such exhibit. 

Sometimes there starts a young woman for the 
mission field. On board the same outgoing 
steamer is a young man who has consecrated his 
life to a like purpose. These two meet on board 
the steamer, are drawn together by mutual aims, 
find enjoyment in discussing their plans and am- 
bitions. The old, old story is reenacted upon 
that ocean voyage. 

When friends in the home land receive the 
news of the engagement and marriage of the 



young woman, there is a tendency to criticise 
her action. They had sent her out dreaming that 
she might become another Miss Agnew who 
should mother hundreds of heathen girls. Now 
they imagine her usefulness as a missionary is 
gone and she will be only a missionary's wife, — 
as if in that capacity she could not be a mis- 

She has probably done what she ought to have 
done. She has linked her life with the man with 
whom God intended hers should be linked, and 
she is going forward to establish a home which 
shall be a living witness of the elevating power 
of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Is it not from the 
home that light radiates forth to enlighten the 
nations, or darkness goes out to enshroud man- 

This does not mean that single women are not 
needed. They are needed and wonderful is the 
part they play in the elevating of heathen woman- 
hood. They have freedom to travel and enter 
the homes. To them is granted the privilege of 
meeting heathenism in its citadel, the heathen 
home. But to the married woman is given the 
opportunity of revealing to heathenism Christi- 
anity in its citadel, the Christian home. Often 
she, too, ministers in those darkened homes 
and teaches classes of women who come within 
her reach but it is in her home where she 
reigns as queen. Before this, her throne, even 


4. ^^i. 

Pi^ ^^M^M 



M^JS^' -^ 



Missionaries turning aside from their conference to an after- 
noon tea. 

The author's home in Chu Cheo, China. His dispensary is 
seen at the right. 


heathenism bows in acknowledgment of the 
supremacy of Christianity over other religious 

A Christian home is scarcely opened in a Chi- 
nese city before it becomes the centre of interest. 
Crowds of men and women (they never come 
singly) come knocking at the compound door 
until the first few months slip away and time has 
been found for naught else but entertaining the 
visiting neighbours. Everything in that new 
home has been minutely investigated. The 
smooth level floors, the windows and doors with 
their fastenings, the fireplaces, mantels, stoves, 
carpets, pictures, chairs, whitewashed walls, 
dishes, sewing machine, typewriter, books and 
bookcases (even an old Chinese teacher's library 
will not have more than forty volumes of books), 
the cushions, clean bed linen and comfortable 
beds, — these all are marvels of interest to mil- 
lions who have been passing like an ever- 
flowing stream through the hundreds of Chris- 
tian homes planted over the hills and plains of 

Every act of the husband towards his wife, or 
the wife towards her husband ; the care and at- 
tention they give to the children ; the manner in 
which the children are corrected and governed, 
and the education those children show, are closely 
watched and commented upon. They see a 
woman who is educated, who has judgment and 


authority in her home, who exacts and receives 
love, even as she gives it to her family. It is a 
wonderful revelation to the Chinese. That rev- 
elation is the force which has revolutionized 
China. Armies and navies could not have pro- 
duced such a stupendous change. 

Suppose we contrast a Chinese home. A 
native man and woman never walk on the street 
side by side. The family do not sit down to- 
gether at the table and eat their food. Men do 
not stay around home and enter into pleasant 
conversation with their wives. The women are 
considered incapable of acting in such a ca- 
pacity, — and they are incapable. A Chinese 
woman is little more than a child grown tall. 
Her only education is that of experience and she 
has learned it in an evil school. She has very 
little refinement. She knows no other way of 
obtaining what she calls her rights than by 
secret conniving or open quarrelling. A family 
quarrel is carried to the street and the neigh- 
bours must be called in to mediate and reconcile 
the couple. 

The character used to designate the word 
" home " pictures a pig under a roof. That is 
all their homes are, merely shelters. Even the 
women and the children prefer the open air to 
staying within doors. An American farm barn is 
more habitable and better constructed than some 
of the buildings in which Chinese officials live. 


The majority of their houses have only " mother 
earth" as a floor. The donkeys, cows, farm 
utensils are intermingled with the family quar- 
ters. Beds for men and feeding-troughs for ani- 
mals are in close proximity. An easy-chair or a 
clean bed is rarely found in a Chinese home. 
Glass windows are a recent innovation and only 
rich homes display them. What wonder, then, 
that the missionary home should be so attractive 
and there should spring up in the visitors' hearts 
a longing for such comforts and such love in 
their own homes ? 

They are copying those Christian homes. 
Questions are being asked the missionary doctor 
concerning hygiene and sanitation. Dirty pools 
of water are disappearing from before the front 
doors of their homes. Little children are being 
dressed more respectably and with due attention 
to social purity. One man was rebuking another 
for continually quarrelling with his wife. 

" Everybody does the same. Why should not 
I ? " was the retort. 

" The missionaries do not quarrel with their 
wives," thoughtfully answered the rebuker. 

As we are called to the Chinese homes in our 
ministries, we notice little innovations. A baby is 
being expected in one place. Ordinarily the Chi- 
nese wait until the baby comes, before preparing 
the clothing. Why should they do otherwise? 
So many babies die at birth. To prepare cloth- 


ing and not use it would be a waste. For 
the first few days the little one's nest is within 
the bosom of its mother's clothing. But in this 
home we find them preparing clothing for the 
newcomer and even copying the model of the 
missionary's baby. They have called the car- 
penter to make a cradle that it may have its 
own bed instead of having it sleep with its 

In another home are found better constructed 
chairs. They are also glorying in the possession 
of a locally made rocking-chair. A travelling 
photographer has passed through the place. 
Members of the family or the family group have 
sat for pictures and these are framed and hung 
on the newly whitewashed walls. Sheets are ap- 
pearing upon the beds. Small stoves are creep- 
ing into the houses. Teachers are taking news- 
papers and other periodicals. Books on modem 
subjects are being placed on their shelves. 

Influential men among them, after watching 
the mission home, have said again and again, 
*' May the day soon come in China when we can 
have educated and cultured womanhood in our 
homes." They are taking practical steps towards 
the education of their girls. Mission schools for 
girls they loyally support. When told how a man 
in America may win a woman to be his wife and 
they have contrasted such a method with their 
own customs, it has required no argument to 


prove to them which is the better way. It is im- 
possible in heathen countries to grant the advan- 
tages of social intercourse between young people 
of opposite sex. 

A Chinese rarely sees his wife before she is 
bound to him in marriage. She is selected by a 
middleman, usually some old woman, whose only 
care is to see that the horoscopes of the contract- 
ing parties agree and that she gets her fee for ar- 
ranging the engagement. The bride is brought 
to the home of the bridegroom's parents in a 
closed chair. She is completely enveloped by her 
red wedding garments. Her face is hidden be- 
hind a thick veil. She is met at the door by the 
bridesmaids, two old women, who lead her to her 
future husband. The prostrations are made, the 
intermingled wine drank and the entire ceremony 
completed before the bridegroom is allowed to 
lead her to the bridal chamber and there lift her 
veil and look upon her countenance. 

But what difference does that make to a man 
living in a land where woman is only regarded as 
a necessary appurtenance for the propagating of 
the family lineage ? He does not look to his wife 
for happiness. She could not be a companion to 
him. He will obtain social pleasures in the com- 
pany of men. As for her, his mother will look 
after her conduct and see that she takes her place 
in the economy of the household. That there 
could be congenial fellowship between a man and 


his wife was not conceived by them until the mis- 
sionary home revealed the fact. 

A missionary mother was starting with her 
children for the home land. For nearly eight 
years she had been amongst the people of that 
city. She had been in the homes of the Christians. 
Some of the babies had received their first bath 
from her hands. The women had come to her 
with their troubles when they could not summon 
courage to meet the medical missionary. She 
had made garments for their children. She had 
listened to their wrongs. She had found solu- 
tion for many a little difficulty. Even the men 
had not been ashamed to learn of her and be 
guided by her counsels. 

She had watched over the work when her hus- 
band would be out on evangelistic tours or meet- 
ing the mission committee on business. She had 
weighed wood and straw and paid the labourers 
who had carried in the load on their shoulders. 
They had stood aghast at a woman capable of 
doing such a mathematical task. They were cer- 
tain no Chinese woman had such ability. She 
had presided at her table with culture and ability 
when some of the higher classes had visited in 
the mission home. They had marvelled at such 
refinement in woman. 

Now she was returning to her home land. She 
had come unbidden to their midst. She was 
going away followed by their respect and love. 


It was only a mile to the riverside where she was to 
take the boat. She had walked that mile many 
times. But she was not to walk it this time. 
The Christians had called a sedan chair with 
bearers. It was the only practical thing they 
could do to show their respect. 

When the time for starting arrived the chair- 
bearers had disappeared. They saw in the af- 
fair an opportunity to demand exorbitant fees 
and had slipped out of sight until more money 
was offered them. When the Christians ap- 
prehended the situation they put their own 
shoulders under the poles of the chair and carried 
that foreign woman to the river bank. Seven 
years ago they would not have done that for a 
foreigner, be he man or woman. 

Upon the river bank they stood and tried to 
express their farewell salutations. 

"May your whole journey be one of 

** May you have joy in meeting your parents 

" We will pray for you all the way and may 
you pray for us." 

** The whole church will be as one pair of eyes 
looking for your return." 

That is what they tried to say. The tears 
covered their cheeks and blurred their eyes. 
The unbidden sobs came and choked their utter- 
ances. They stood on the bank a silent, sad 


group as the boat slowly swung out into the^ 
stream and floated away. 

** If you want to convince a man let loose a life at him. 
Talk is cheap, but the logic of a life is irresistible." 



TSIH GWEI-LING drifted into Chu Cheo 
providentially. He had spent the best 
of his life working along the lines of least 
resistance or being led by his impulsive heart. 
His career had begun at Wuhu, where, after 
Chinese fashion, he had cemented brotherly re- 
lations with another young carpenter, named 
Bien, to whom he had been drawn. Later he had 
eloped with his employer's young wife. His 
employer had himself been criminally careless 
about his wife as most opium smokers are likely 
to be, but that did not excuse Tsih's act. 

Tsih settled with his ill-gotten wife in a town 
about a week's journey (two hundred miles) 
away from Wuhu. There was no danger that 
his former employer would follow him or trace 
him that far. A position as runner in the official 
yamen was secured and with it a living was 
sure. He had plenty of idle time on his hands. 
It gave him liberty to drift in where anything in- 
teresting might be happening. 

A mission street chapel had been opened by 
some Presbyterian missionaries. Tsih mingled 
with the crowds who flocked in to see the for- 



eigners. He came again. The Gospel story in- 
terested him and soon his name was on the roll 
of enquirers. In due time he became a member 
of the church. He did not say anything about 
his relations with the woman he called his wife. 
He did not see any special connection between 
his religion and his general conduct. To him 
the Christian doctrine was better than that of 
heathenism. The utterances of the Bible con- 
cerning future life and the manner of obtaining 
it were clear and definite. He was not a student 
and did not trouble himself to gain more than a 
surface knowledge of the Scriptures. That there 
were certain material benefits accruing to those 
who held connection with the foreigners and 
their religion, was of greater interest to him. 

That exception might be taken to certain past 
acts of his life did not trouble him. He would 
take care that those facts did not reach the 
knowledge of the foreigners. When the passion 
was on him he still held a position at the gamb- 
ling table and played until his last cash was 
gone. Any bully looking for a quarrel always 
found him ready to stand up for his ** rights." 
Why should he not drink wine if he liked it ? So 
the missionaries remained in ignorance of some 
very important acts in his Hfe's drama. 

His wife became sick and, as a sequel went 
temporarily insane. She asked to be taken back 
to her childhood home near Lu Cheo Fu and as 


it was a sufficient distance from the home of her 
first husband, he took her to the place. He 
stayed by her, nursed her through all her de- 
mentia until health came again. They had 
learned to love each other. Perhaps they had 
loved each other from their first associations. 
Heathenism has so little to make the marriage 
tie sacred that they would have seen no wrong 
in forming such an attachment. 

When she recovered her mental balance he 
went back to his carpenter's trade to make a 
Hving and, seeking work, drifted into Chu Cheo. 
A local carpenter took him on as an assistant. 
One day Tsih, in adapting himself to his new 
surroundings, discovered that the scrolls on the 
door of a neighbour's house, bore evidence of a 
connection with the Christian Church. Since he 
also had professed to be a Christian, he intro- 
duced himself and began to investigate what 
amount of material aid he might gain in associ- 
ating with the Chu Cheo church. Mr. Wang, 
this Christian neighbour, was in our employ and 
knew of our need of a carpenter. So he advised 
Tsih to bring his wife to Chu Cheo, rent a house, 
set up business for himself and await develop- 

We did need a carpenter. In a town of ten 
thousand people there was not one good one. 
Such as there were, could make only rough Chi- 
nese furniture. Even the Chinese had to bring 


all their better class of furniture from Nanking. 
The work about a mission home was so different 
from what they were used to doing that, even 
though it guaranteed good pay, they were un- 
willing to learn how to do it. Our blinds would 
come loose. We needed to have shelving put in 
and pieces of furniture made. Small outbuild- 
ings must be erected. It was too costly to send 
to Nanking for men to make such repairs. We 
had no time to do them ourselves. It required 
too much time to gain the help of the local men 
and outwit their trickery when they did come to 

Tsih began attending the Sunday services and, 
in course of time, Wang brought him to our 
notice. We were told of his connection with the 
church, of the sickness through which his wife 
had passed and of his coming to town seeking 
for work. Wang did not seem to think it neces- 
sary to enter extensively into any other features 
of Tsih's life. Indeed, it is doubtful if he himself 
knew of them. 

Tsih came into our study one day. We told 
him of our dilemma in getting carpenter work 
done and asked him if he were willing, for a 
proper compensation, to do work under our 
supervision. When we were not using him he 
could work elsewhere. Of course he was willing. 

We tested him on various little pieces of repair 
about the place. He listened to our instructions 


and did his work well. Our dry-goods and 
grocery boxes he turned into needed pieces of 
furniture. We searched catalogues for patterns 
and described them to him. We made a paste- 
board model of a garden wheelbarrow and gave 
the measurements. He turned out an excellent 
barrow but came to us for help in making the 
wheel. He wanted to put an iron rod through 
the axle. The Chinese usually burn such a hole 
through with a hot iron. He had been in our 
shop and seen us use a brace and bit. For the 
first time its possibilities dawned upon him and 
he wished to test it in making the hole for the 
axle. It worked its way so quickly and smoothly 
through the wood that the superiority of some 
foreign methods permeated his mind. 

That event was the beginning step in his up- 
lift. He began to study the pictures of our cata- 
logues. He tested the tools we had on hand. 
He experimented with a foreign plane iron and 
found it would hold an edge better than the 
Chinese plane irons. Then he made requests for 
the purchase of a saw, hammer, files, screws, 
locks and hinges. The quality of his work im- 
proved and repaid the extra trouble which the 
buying of the tools caused us. 

He made a bookcase, typewriter stand, chest 
of drawers, beds for the children and a glass case 
for surgical instruments. He studied rattan work 
and turned out chairs. He learned how to paint 


and put successive coats on the buildings. He 
took contracts for the smaller outbuildings and 
made a success in their construction. When one 
of the schools of western learning in the town 
wished to introduce military drill into their ath- 
letics, he took the contract for producing wooden 
guns of regulation size and shape. Not another 
carpenter in the place could have made them. 

That is the story of how he became the leading 
carpenter in Chu Cheo. Very closely interwoven 
with that tale are the successive steps by which 
he rose from the place of a nominal Christian to 
being a real one. As the brace and bit opened 
his eyes to better methods and finer skill in his 
trade, so also they paved the way to a more 
sympathetic fellowship with Christians and a 
deeper appreciation of the Christian life. Prior 
to this time there had not come to him the ex- 
perience of other men showing an unselfish inter- 
est in his welfare. Christianity was revealed in 
a new light. He saw the relationship between 
brotherhood and true religion. 

He seemed to have always had a kindly na- 
ture. His voice and manner were pleasing. He 
was good to his family. He was a willing 
worker. Having declared his connections with 
the church, Tsih attended services regularly. 
There was a happy fellowship among the circle 
of Christians in Chu Cheo and they welcomed 
him to it. He closed his business on Sundays 


and brought his assistants to church. His wife 
came with him and, showing a good life, was 
soon a member. A Christian Endeavour society 
was organized and Tsih became an active mem- 
ber. All was going smoothly on the up grade. 

But old habits are not willing to be buried so 
easily. Even past records, which we think so 
securely hidden, are liable to reappear. Tsih 
rented rooms in a building adjoining those occu- 
pied by another servant of ours. While the lat- 
ter was away on business, a little irritation be- 
tween the two households started gossip. A 
little difference grew into a matter of great im- 
portance. ** Face," so precious to the average 
Chinaman, was in jeopardy. Both men became 
proudly unyielding. To them a pitched battle 
seemed the only solution to the problem. Tsih 
had the most conscience in the matter and made 
weak attempts to settle the affair but, when the 
other servant started the battle, he met him half 

It happened very suddenly one morning in 
our compound. Drastic measures had to be 
taken to bring them back to their senses. The 
experiences of the weeks following, when we 
were trying to reestablish peace between them, 
revealed to us the difference between a good 
man and a bad one. We saw that the course of 
Tsih's life was going tip ; that of the other man 
was hurrying downward. One was slowly 


drifting away into an evil life ; the other was 
seeking to overcome the evil of a past life. 

Later there came another revelation of Tsih's 
past life. As he had prospered since coming to 
Chu Cheo, he cast about for some one to aid 
him in his growing trade. He bethought him- 
self of Bien, the Wuhu carpenter, with whom 
years before he had cemented brotherly rela- 
tions. They had agreed that should one of them 
become prosperous, he should give the other an 
opportunity to share in the good fortune. So 
Tsih went privately up to Wuhu and sought out his 
friend. Bien had not succeeded in his business 
and gladly accepted the offer. He brought his 
family with him to Chu Cheo. 

Both men had married since parting and knew 
nothing of each other's wives. When the two 
women n^et they found they had also known 
each other in previous years. Bien's wife was a 
natural gossip and this morsel of knowledge was 
too good to keep. All of Tsih's life in Wuhu and 
his relation to the woman he called his wife, which 
he had thought so securely hid from his associates 
in Chu Cheo, came to the surface. It was a hard 
blow to receive just when he was on the up grade 
to a better life. He loved the woman who had 
borne his children and she loved him. Yet, 
legally or morally, she was not his wife. 

He met the situation manfully. His wife was 
put away for a time and of his own free will he 


went to Wuhu to, if possible, straighten out the 
tangle. Fortunately for the case, the former 
opium smoking husband had succumbed to the 
drug and was dead. Tsih went to the relatives 
of the man and entered into an agreement with 
them by which he agreed to pay over to them a 
proper sum of money for his wife. In the eyes 
of the Chinese world, this action on his part 
made her his legal wife. 

When he reestablished his home life he was 
cleaner and stronger spiritually. He had made 
what restitution he could and, once more, looked 
the world in the face. His pocketbook was 
leaner but he and his wife were happier. In the 
blessing which followed, even Bien became a 

The mission was opening new resident stations 
in Bo-djou and Nantungchow. Some one was 
needed who could convert the temporarily rented 
Chinese buildings into semi-foreign residences, in 
which the new missionaries might dwell. When 
residence had been established land would be 
purchased and healthful sanitary foreign build- 
ings would be erected for permanent occupation. 

Local carpenters in those places would not know 
how to do the work. General contractors could 
not afford to take such contracts. Tsih was asked 
for and went out to the larger service. Under 
the strain of diflficulties other faults were revealed 
in him. He had not become freed from the 


Chinese system of graft. He allowed his quick 
temper to pass beyond his control and injured 
one of his assistants. When he came to himself 
he humbly acknowledged his faults and made res- 
titution. Tsih fell but he rose again. That 
was the glory of it all. He was not content to 
lie in the slough but would climb up again and 
seek to cleanse himself of the stains. 

His wife became temporarily insane a second 
time. He went to great inconvenience to please 
her irrational requests and gently cared for her. 
He gradually ceased to quarrel. An insulting 
landlord struck him with a piece of crockery. 
Tsih did not retaliate. He was reviled and he 
reviled not again. He made good his word. 
He would acknowledge his sin. The Chinese 
are so slow to recognize this act of grace. 
Slowly he gained the confidence of the Christian 
leaders. His life was coming into harmony with 
his faith. He studied his Bible and taught it in 
his home. Some of his apprentices became 
Christians. In leisure time he went with groups 
of workers and preached on the streets and in 
the homes. When the leaders of the district con- 
ference were casting about for a man beyond the 
ranks of the evangelists, who could, by character 
and ability, fill the position of president to that 
body, they found in him their man. Who shall 
say that even a brace and a bit may not become 
an evangelistic agency ? 



THIRTY years ago the first railroad was 
built upon Chinese soil. It ran from 
Shanghai to Woosung on the sea. It 
was a fine sample of the products of civilization. 
The Chinese looked at the railroad, thought of 
the possibility of its disturbing their dead ances- 
tors and, through them, the entire Chinese 
economy. They bought it up and cast it into the 
sea. A little later they rebuilt it. That railroad 
has now been extended inland until it is com- 
pleted almost to Nanking, two hundred miles 
away. Beyond Nanking surveyors are laying 
out lines which, when finished, will connect west- 
ward with Hankow and northward with Peking. 
Trains are running on a completed railroad con- 
necting Hankow and Peking, a distance of seven 
hundred and fifty miles. Another railroad be- 
tween Hankow and Canton is in process of con- 
struction. The Germans have constructed other 
roads through the heart of Shantung. Thirty 
years has wrought a great change in the atti- 
tude of the Chinese towards railroad building. 
The old fashioned Chinese soldier is rapidly 


disappearing. An umbrella and a fan made up 
part of his equipment and many carried bird- 
cages about with them. Upon the front and 
back of their uniforms was sewn a circular piece 
of bright cloth upon which was inscribed the 
name of their company. That circular piece of 
cloth made an ideal target. An enemy would 
have to be a poor marksman, indeed, if he could 
not, at least, wound one of them. The guns, 
carried by these soldiers, were those cast off as 
obsolete by the European governments. Li 
Hung Chang bought them up at a low figure and 
sold them to the Chinese government for several 
times the price he paid for them. That is one 
source from which he obtained his wealth. 

It has taken but three years for the viceroys, 
Chang Chi-tung and Yuan Shi-kai, to produce a 
modern army of 250,000 well-drilled soldiers. 
Their maneuvres on the plains of Honan and 
Shantung have amazed the army experts of the 
world. It seemed an impossible task to produce 
so great a change in so short a time. The 
Chinese soldiers now march to the sound of 
modern military music and are, for the first time 
in China's history, singing national songs and 
hymns. They are dressed in modern uniform 
and carry modern rifles. 

The government of Peking has issued an as- 
tonishing array of edicts. The queue, that an- 
cient badge of servitude to the alien Manchu 


rulers, is no longer coerced upon the Chinese and 
a half million have cut them off. The binding of 
the feet of the little girls is becoming less and 
less popular. No ofhcial, who now allows it in 
his household, will be permitted to hold public 
ofBce. The ancient penal codes, under which 
criminals were executed in all manner of hor- 
rible ways, have been done away. The extortion 
of confession in court by torture has also been 
abolished. A constitution is being prepared and 
a currency system unified and brought under one 
centralized control. 

One of the most wide-sweeping reforms is the 
recent opium edict. The government has de- 
creed that within ten years opium must be abol- 
ished throughout the empire and its use by the 
common people cease. Every farmer must 
diminish his present crop annually by one-tenth. 
Every smoker must diminish the amount he con- 
sumes in a like proportion. No man under sixty 
years of age will be allowed to continue its use. 
Any official, who persists in smoking the drug, 
shall be barred from office and any official, who 
shall be able to stamp it out of his district in less 
than the allotted time, shall be promoted. 

When we consider that there are probably not 
less than 40,000,000 who are under the bondage 
of the drug in China, we begin to realize the 
stupendousness of the task confronting the gov- 
ernment. When we consider farther that certain 


unscrupulous foreigners and Chinese have been 
putting upon the market in large quantities a so- 
called anti-opium pill, which contains morphine, 
we see the immense difficulties which confront 
the officials in carrying out the edict. 

Not long ago three foreigners took a house- 
boat trip up the Yangtse River, stopping two or 
three weeks before each of the large cities situ- 
ated on the banks of that river. In nationality 
they represented the three countries of England, 
Germany and America. To introduce their 
goods among the Chinese they placarded the 
walls of those ancient cities with advertisements 
of cigarettes and gave away thousands of the 
cigarettes to the people. 

Those men were representatives of the worst 
type of our civilization. Licentious and vile 
mouthed, they spent their leisure time in drink- 
ing and carousing. Many of those employed in 
surveying and engineering the new railroad proj- 
ects and the opening of mines, are of a like type 
and only accentuate the difficulties in the way of 
those progressive Chinese who would transform 
their country. 

Telegraph wires connect all the larger cities in 
the empire and the Imperial Post-office is rapidly 
opening branches in every portion of the coun- 
try. In the last six years one hundred and fifty 
newspapers have been started. Peking, the 
home of the first daily paper in existence, has 


now ten daily newspapers and one is published 
by a woman for women. 

Great publishing houses have sprung up and 
are producing uncounted amounts of literature. 
Educated men are in great demand for transla- 
tion work. Booker T. Washington's book, ** Up 
From Slavery," and other similar works are be- 
ing translated into Chinese and have a wide 
reading. From the Japanese many works on 
education, science and philosophy have been put 
into the Chinese language. Through this source 
the works of Voltaire, Huxley and Spencer have 
been introduced and are leading the educated 
Chinese from Confucianism to atheism. 

Thirteen hundred years ago when Europe was 
largely a savage wild and inhabited by our un- 
tutored forefathers, China, already civilized, was 
inaugurating her wonderful code of education 
and civil service examinations. Unchanged they 
have come down to the beginning of the present 
century. Recent edicts have abrogated this 
ancient system and ushered in modern educa- 
tional methods. 

The extensive examination halls, in the impor- 
tant literary centres, have been torn down and 
modern school buildings erected in their place. 
Other cities throughout the empire have erected 
similar modern buildings. They are all being 
furnished with the best equipment known to 
modern education. Idols are being cast out of 


their temples and destroyed. Desks and black- 
boards are taking their places. 

A curriculum, modeled after those in other 
countries, has been published with the seal of the 
emperor and copies have been placed in every 
official city. Full explanatory notes accompany 
each copy. The course prescribed will carry a 
pupil from the kindergarten to the end of a uni- 
versity training. By the help of the missionaries 
and Japanese educators, a series of school books 
to match the prescribed course, has been hur- 
ried into existence and publishers are rushed to 
supply the demand. One official in West China 
was so anxious to begin operations at once, that 
he ordered the books by telegraph (a much more 
expensive proceeding than in wire-bound America) 
and ordered that they be sent by mail. It cost 
him nearly two hundred dollars for postage but 
the books reached him in a third of the time re- 
quired for the slow moving Chinese freight 

Schools are being opened for girls as well as 
boys. In some places little children of both 
sexes attend school side by side. In other 
places separate schools are opened for the girls. 
Under the patronage of the Empress Dowager a 
lama's temple in Peking has been appropriated 
for a girls* school and no bound-footed girl is al- 
lowed to attend its sessions. 

The demand for qualified teachers has been 


far in excess of the supply. Graduates of mis- 
sion schools have found positions with large sal- 
aries awaiting them. Japanese have been called 
to many of the positions but so many of them 
have been second and third rate men that they 
have not been universally satisfactory. The 
Chinese are sending the brightest of their young 
men to Japan to studv western learning. They 
have been going over at the rate of five hundred 
a month. In Tokio alone there are fifteen thou- 
sand Chinese students. Something like fifty 
thousand Japanese are in China at the present 
time. It is easy to see how Japan is gaining 
the preponderance of power in the empire. 

Because of the impossibility of obtaining an 
adequate supply of capable teachers for the new 
schools, confusion has reigned within. Chinese, 
who knew almost nothing about the subjects they 
were supposed to teach, have deceived those in 
authority and brought reproach upon the 
schools. Men who have not spent six months 
upon the language, have held the position of 
teacher of English. 

Such unsatisfactory conditions have brought 
about a reaction in favour of the mission schools 
and colleges. Influential men have brought 
their children to our schools and plead that they 
might be accepted. They have willingly paid 
all expenses and made no stipulations as to reg- 
ulations and courses of study. When faced 


with the possibiHty of their children becoming 
Christians they have, in instances, declared their 
willingness that their children should become 
converts to the Gospel. A number of men in 
high positions are Christians. The admiral of 
the Chinese fleet in the Yangtse waters is such a 
man and his sons are being educated in Chris- 
tian schools. 

Educated Chinese of the old school who have 
been foremost in bringing about the new era, 
find the conditions have progressed beyond their 
leadership. The theory of the new education 
they have learned through the papers and mag- 
azines. But its application is incomprehensible 
to them. They have never seen a modern 
school in working order and they have no nor- 
mal schools in which they might learn the ap- 
plication of the methods. They are too old to 
enter school themselves. 

In the interior they are appealing to the only 
one capable of aiding them, the missionary. To 
him they are coming. For the first time in the 
history of China missions, the door to the edu- 
cated classes is wide open. Atheists, though 
these leaders are, they have placed themselves 
under Christian influence for the sake of being 
able to cope with the present crisis. They have 
willingly studied the Scriptures along with their 
secular studies and some are being turned to a 
belief in the One God. 


Among other edicts which the throne has been 
issuing is one making Sunday a legal holiday. 
It applies with special force to the new schools 
and the new army. These men are seizing all 
possible opportunities to gain a knowledge of 
things western. Whole schools of students and 
companies of soldiers have walked into the 
Christian chapels and churches on Sunday morn- 
ing. Chou-fu, when governor of Shantung, be- 
gan the work of introducing the Bible among 
officials. He said that ignorance of the Bible 
had been the cause of all past trouble between 
the Chinese and foreigners. He demanded of 
the officials under him, that they should make a 
careful study of the Bible in order to an under- 
standing of the missionary propaganda. When 
he became viceroy at Nanking he sent an- 
other order for Bibles to the American 
Bible Society and distributed them among the 
officials within his jurisdiction. Other men 
in authority have adopted the suggestion and 
have placed the Bible in the new schools as 
a text-book in order that the rising genera- 
tion may not make the mistakes their fathers 
have made. 

In the six years following the Boxer uprising 
Christian missions in China have received an un- 
precedented number of converts. Over fifty 
thousand have been gathered in within that 
time, a third of the entire Chinese Christian 


Church. The record of these six years is greater 
than that of the first sixty years following the ar- 
rival of Robert Morrison in China. In 1806 
when he entered Canton, he was opposed by 
both the Chinese and foreign tradesmen. He 
lived in a cellar. A curtain had to be hung be- 
fore the one window of his quarters to hide the 
light of his candle. In secrecy he learned the 
language, translated the Scriptures and produced 
that stupendous work, the dictionary of the 
Chinese language. When after six years of 
labour he had the joy of baptizing his first con- 
vert, this, too, had to be done in secret. Upon 
the mountain side, in a pool made by the moun- 
tain stream, out of the sight and hearing of men, 
he baptized into the name of the Father, Son and 
Holy Spirit, the first Chinese won by Protestant 

Last year in that same city fifteen hundred 
Chinese Christians met together and pledged 
seven thousand and five hundred dollars towards 
the erection of a Morrison memorial building. 
One hundred years has wrought the change. 
Through all of that time missionaries have been 
beating away at the seemingly impregnable walls 
of China's exclusiveness. Men and women have 
laid themselves down upon the altar of service, 
laboured and died for China. Before that un- 
ceasing attack those walls have crumbled and 
fallen. The answer to a hundred years of prayer 


has come and China is prepared to receive the 

*' The Lord shall sever the sea ; 
And open a way in the wilderness 
To faith that follows, to feet that press 
On into the great To Be. 
The Lord shall sever the sea." 



ABOUT the time that the ancient system 
of education in China was being abol- 
ished by the government, an oppor- 
tunity presented itself for opening a day-school 
in Chu Cheo. Some years before the mission 
had operated a school in that city, but it was in 
the days when the Chinese were antagonistic to 
all things foreign and the pupils who came to the 
school were from the indigent classes. Even 
they would have refused to come had not 
tuition, books and schoolroom equipment been 
furnished free. It would have been found im- 
possible to have introduced into the school mod- 
ern school methods. 

The conflicts with foreign nations in which 
China had involved herself, together with the 
Russian-Japanese War, have produced a com- 
plete change in the attitude of many Chinese lead- 
ers. When the educational edict was sent out 
from the throne, it found the leaders ready to re- 
ceive it. We would have had as great difficulty 
in opening our new day-school on the old Chinese 
lines as would have been experienced in the first 



school opened there had the missionaries at- 
tempted at that time to introduce modern 

However, we found another stumbUng-block 
in the road. The Chinese were seeking to open 
modern schools for themselves and were not 
anxious to patronize the missionaries. We fur- 
nished a building in an attractive manner with 
blackboards and maps. A graduate of a mis- 
sion college was obtained as teacher. Adver- 
tisements were posted announcing the opening 
of the school and soliciting students. The 
teacher occupied the building for a half month 
with one lone pupil. 

Just at the time when it appeared that the 
school would be a failure two men, twenty-five 
and thirty years of age, paid us a visit. Mr. 
Djang was from a near-by country district. 
Young as he was, he had been called by his dis- 
trict to the place of chief counsellor or elder. He 
was a fine example of what a strong belief in 
Confucian ethics can do for a man. He was a 
perfect gentleman. Mr. Hwang, the second 
man, was the youngest son of one of Chu Cheo's 
wealthiest homes. Both of his older brothers had 
successively occupied the position of chief coun- 
sellor in the town. One of them was at the time 
connected with a reform newspaper. The entire 
family are in sympathy with the new movement 
in China and recendy opened in their own home 


a modern day-school in which boys and girls are 
admitted on equal basis. 

'' You do not seem to be able to obtain a suffi- 
cient number of children for your day-school. 
What would you think of our enrolling as stu- 
dents ? Your teacher is capable of instructing us 
in modern studies. We are too old to enter our 
government new schools and yet, if we are to re- 
tain our places as leaders in this new era, we must 
become conversant with western learning," was 
the plea of these young men to us. 

**You can yourself see," they continued in 
their earnestness, *'that we cannot continue as 
leaders unless we know how to lead. And if we 
do not continue as leaders, China will become 
disordered and confused and fail in her attempts 
to reform. We, who have the only education 
China has ever given the people, must lead in 
the search for modern education. We need 
your help. Will you not teach us ? " 

It was a new plea from a new source. Never 
before had the educated classes expressed any 
desire to learn of the missionary. These young 
men were willing to pay all expenses, see to their 
own board and observe any necessary regula- 
tions. We did not, could not, refuse such a plea 
and thus began our work with the influential 
classes in our district. 

Their coming at once attracted attention to 
file school. It was not long before ten young 

A group of influential Chinese who studied with the authoi 

Chinese school children at the Clui Cheo dispensary. 


men and ten children were enrolled. It was 
beyond the limit of one teacher's ability to handle 
such a school and we were compelled to take 
time from our medical and evangelistic work and 
aid in this new field. 

The question of religious instruction confronted 
us from the beginning. In a day-school for chil- 
dren the day's session was ordinarily opened with 
religious exercises. The reading of the Scrip- 
tures and prayer must necessarily be an important 
feature as we are primarily in China to Chris- 
tianize her people. But these young men were 
not idolaters but atheists. They were students 
of Voltaire, Huxley and Darwin. Would we be 
able to win them to Christ by arbitrarily com- 
pelling them to daily repeat the Lord's prayer 
and sing hymns ? 

" When one does not know what to do, it is 
better to wait." We studied the problem and 
prayed over it. Such a school was a new ven- 
ture and had no precedent by which it could be 
guided. It is often easier to drive a man away 
from Christ than to win him to Christ. We 
wanted to win them. 

It was surprising how the subject of religion 
would constantly arise in the class room. The 
young men were in an enquiring state of mind. 
In the study of geography they saw that where 
heathenism reigned, there was also barbarism 
and savagery. In those countries where Christ 


was being exalted, civilization and learning were 
making the greatest progress. In the most 
natural way we would find ourselves discussing 
together comparative religions and the relation 
between religion and social progress. 

Still the Scriptures, as such, were not being 
recognized in the school and we came to the con- 
clusion that, to be true to our mission, the Bible 
must have its place in the daily work. We told 
them that, since our business in China was to 
preach Christ, we could not carry on the school 
unless we were given freedom to bring the Bible 
before them. We did not wish to force Chris- 
tianity upon them but they should be willing to 
search for truth wherever it might be found. 
We would recognize it when found in their Con- 
fucian classics. They should be willing to ac- 
cept it when found in the Christian Scriptures. 

The first effect of the announcement was the 
shrinkage of the class of young men from ten to 

three, — but they were the best three. The others 
showed a greater anxiety to be popular with 
their fellow men than to become leaders of the 
reform movement. Their coming into the school 
had already brought down upon themselves the 
taunt of following the foreigner. If it should be 
known that they were reading the foreigner's 
Bible, the situation would become unbearable. 
So, with finely veiled excuses for absenting 
themselves, they withdrew from the school 


The three who remained included the two men 
who first entered the school. These voluntarily 
drew up a few statements in which they ex- 
pressed themselves willing to read and discuss 
the Bible, abstain from opium and wine and up- 
hold a perfect moral standard while in the 

So began our battle between atheism and 
Christianity. Since their language is full of 
classical sayings, they found wonderful pleasure 
in reading the book of the Proverbs and com- 
paring their own pithy sayings. When Genesis 
was read and the discussion as to the possibility 
and probability of a Creator and Guiding Hand 
being back of this universe was introduced for 
the first time in this ministry, we were called 
upon to prove the existence of a God. 

Exodus was read and the beginnings of law 
was brought to their attention. Then the New 
Testament was searched to find what Christ and 
Paul had to say on the same subject. When the 
young men proposed for the next readings a 
study in the life of Christ, we felt that we were 
gaining ground. 

During all this time there had appeared a re- 
luctance on the part of the young men to attend 
the church services. Those who have been won 
in times past, have been largely from the com- 
mon and uneducated class of Chinese. The 
services had to be suited to their understanding. 


These educated young men found very little at- 
traction for themselves in such a meeting. 

To meet this difficulty an hour on Sunday 
mornings was set apart in which we could meet 
with them and more definitely discuss religious 
and moral questions. They willingly prepared 
essays on idolatry, pauperism, ancestral worship, 
the existence of life after death, the existence of 
God and kindred subjects. A discussion of the 
paper would follow and sometimes the following 
Sunday would be devoted to answering some of 
the vital questions they had introduced. 

Once, when the question of the possibility of 
the origin of all matter by chance was being dis- 
cussed, we told them that if they could persuade 
the common people of the inertness of idols and 
take away from their hearts all reverence and fear 
of things spiritual, China would have a counterpart 
of the French Revolution within her borders. Fear 
of demons does more to hold the Chinese people 
in subj ection than all temporal authority. Let that 
fear be removed, and worship of nothing else be 
substituted, and the common people would rise 
immediately against the oppression of their rulers. 
The young men saw the logic of the statement. 

" Can it be, then," they asked, *' that Christ 
saw this longing of the human heart for an ob- 
ject of worship, this longing for an after life in 
which rewards and punishments would be justly 
meted out, and so originated the Christian system 


of religion?" They soon saw the utter impos- 
sibility of originating false history without its 
being refuted by men of the same age. In a 
carefully written paper, given shortly after, they 
accepted the existence of life after death and 
stepped out of the ranks of atheists. 

Meanwhile they were invited to social lunches 
and parties in our homes. They enjoyed the 
foreign doughnuts, coffee and cake. They en- 
tered heartily into games and informally dis- 
cussed sociology. The vision of educated. Chris- 
tian womanhood presiding over the home life 
made a strong impression upon them. They en- 
tered into conversation with missionary mothers. 
Customs in regard to courtship and marriage 
were discussed. They were getting acquainted 
with women whom they could honour and re- 
spect. There was being born within them a 
hunger to be pure in heart. Social purity was 
being placed on a new and higher basis. That 
social reform should become a part of China's 
new era had not impressed them before. 

They sat down with us at the table. They 
heard the blessing of God asked upon the meal. 
They were guests at a table around which were 
gathered the entire family. They were learning 
the use of the knife and fork. At the same time 
they were gaining a knowledge of home life, 
which was vitalized by the presence of God. 
They saw its effects in ennobling man and 


woman, in beautifying child life. They had been 
studying Christianity in the Scriptures. They 
saw its supremacy over other religious systems 
demonstrated in the missionary's home. 

The school continued for two years. Other 
young men came in and joined the three who 
had remained with the school. Those who had 
left asked to be allowed to reenter but the time 
for furlough was at hand and the school had to 
be closed. Had we effected any change in the 
life and thought of those young men ? We 
longed to know and one day asked the question, 
" What do you think of the Scriptures ?" 

'' We find no fault or untruth in them," was 
the unhesitating, though obscure, Chinese answer. 

'* Do you believe there is a God?" 

Note their reply. *' We have not seen Him, 
nor heard His voice. But we know there must 
be a carpenter back of a table or chair. We 
should not show ourselves to have wisdom if, in 
face of all the orderliness and harmony in this 
world, we did not believe that back of the tree, 
the summer and winter, the storm and the sun- 
shine, the swinging of the worlds in space, there 
is a Creator, a Great Orderer." 

Not long ago Mr. Djang said, " When I began 
studying western learning, I thought that that was 
what China needed to become like other nations. 
Now I know that the Gospel must accompany 
the learning if China would become truly great" 


THERE has been much talk in the past 
about " The Light of Asia," and the 
ethical code of Confucius. Men have 
deplored missionary activity among the Orientals, 
saying that they had religions of their own and 
it was not right to force an alien religion upon 
them ; that they were living up to the light they 
have and would probably be judged by that 

The fact is the nations of the Orient are not 
living up to the standard of their religions and 
they themselves keenly realize it. They have 
sinned against the God or gods revealed to them 
by these systems of religion and, being without 
a Redeemer, have found themselves without a 
straw of hope. 

The most pathetic thing about heathenism is 
the constant groping in the dark for some way 
out of the pit into which sin has cast them. The 
failure to live up to their moral standards has 
brought upon them an abject fear of demons, 
and a desperate seeking for means to propitiate 
them. Sickness, drought, famine, fire, flood and 
death itself, are believed to be inflicted upon 



them by demoniacal powers. Their religious ac- 
tivities consist in being careful not to anger the 
demons, in seeking to deceive them, trying to 
ward them off or propitiate them. The measures 
they use to bring about these ends are largely of 
a material nature. 

Within their walled cities very rarely will a 
street run directly from one gate through the 
city to a gate on the opposite side. The demons 
might enter a gate and, sweeping through in a 
straight line, entirely destroy the place. But it 
is supposed that they are unable to turn sharp 
corners. So up in the heart of the city, one 
street ends abruptly against a solid wall and one 
must turn a sharp angle and cross to another 
street before reaching the one that passes out the 
opposite gate. 

The people erect a screen just within the 
front door of their homes. It effectually hides 
from public view the interior of the home, but, 
more important, it furnishes a sharp angle as a 
barrier to the possible entrance of evil spirits. 
Upon the brick chimney of their cooking range 
each New Year they paste the picture of the 
kitchen god. He is supposed to watch over the 
conduct of the members of the family. He sees 
all their wrangling, hears all the gossip and 
knows all their deeds, good and evil. At the 
end of the year they take him down from his 
place and burn the paper upon which his picture 


is printed. He is supposed in this manner to 
return to his master in the spirit world and ren- 
der an account concerning the conduct of the 
household. The family are keenly aware of the 
evil record they have made and so, lest the 
kitchen god tell it all, they take a little honey or 
molasses and smear it on the picture over his 
mouth. This will compel him to tell a sweet tale 
about their actions for the year. 

A company idly enter a temple and sit down 
to gamble. Lest the idol see them doing this 
evil deed, they bind a cloth about his eyes 
and then gamble on in peace. When, after long 
pleadings and many offerings, an idol does not 
respond to the request of the worshipper, the 
people have been known to bore a hole in the 
back of the idol and place therein a live scorpion 
to wake up the idol. 

A little baby boy coming to a home finds a 
welcome. Not so with a little girl. The boy is 
necessary to the perpetuation of the family name. 
A girl goes to another home and will do nothing 
to continue the posterity of the line from which 
she has sprung. Hence the boy is looked upon 
with importance and the girl as a burden. The 
Chinese believe the powers of darkness recognize 
this distinction. A demon, naturally, when strik- 
ing a home would aim at the most vulnerable 
point. The boy is that vulnerable point. So 
endeavour is made to deceive the demons by 


disguising the boy as a girl. Girls wear ear- 
rings. Invariably in the ear of the first born boy 
is hung an earring. Sometimes the boy is 
dressed in girl's clothes and given a girl's name. 

To many the Chinese worship of ancestors and 
their filial piety has seemed a beautiful ceremony. 
It is a beautiful ceremony^ but it is not much more 
than that. In most cases it has degenerated to 
a fear lest the spirits of the parents come back 
and bring calamities upon impious children. In 
the spring-time a woman goes out to a grave 
and sitting down beside it, begins to weep and 
lament. There is no sorrow in her mourning. 
It is mere form. Men burn incense, imitation 
money, and candles at the graves of their dead 
parents. They did not trouble themselves about 
the wishes of their parents when the latter were 
living. They would not worship at their graves 
now, did they not fear the power of invisible 
spirits. *' The letter killeth ; it is the spirit that 
maketh alive." 

There are uncounted suicides in China. They 
are an inheritance from Buddhism. The people 
have been taught that the spirit of a murdered 
man can come back and curse his slayer. Abuse 
or outrage a person in life and calamity will fol- 
low the culprit after the death of the injured 
party. Women whose lives have been made un- 
bearable ; men who have been trodden under 
the feet of one stronger ; those who have no other 


resource for redress will obtain a sufficient 
amount of opium and, going to the door-step of 
the one who has wronged them, publish abroad 
the wrong committed by dying there. In one 
city of five thousand people in one year there 
were not less than fifty suicides. The misery of 
their present lot and the desire for revenge so 
possesses their souls that even the fear of death 
is lost. What a commentary upon Oriental re- 
ligions I 

The retrogression of the Chinese nation can 
be traced to this fear of demons. Their fathers 
followed certain customs and methods and the 
nation was prosperous. Would that not argue 
that such customs and methods were satisfactory 
to the powers of darkness ? It were safer to fol- 
low in the footsteps of their fathers than to ex- 
periment with new methods which might arouse 
the anger of demons. Coal mines, railroads, new 
machinery, deepening of canal beds, all are un- 
tried operations and might invite calamity. It 
were wiser to abide by the ancient methods than 
to invite disaster. 

This fear of demons has made China, like all 
heathen countries, a breeding ground for all 
manner of superstition, quackery and exorcism. 
Fortune-tellers and charlatans have grown rich 
by playing upon the imagination of the people. 
The locating of lucky spots for graves, the direc- 
tion towards which the front door of the home 


should face, the determination of a lucky day 
upon which to begin a journey or have a wed- 
ding, all call for the presence of such men. 

Li Hung Chang, great a man as we have con- 
sidered him, when he wished to fix the location 
for a family burying ground, appealed to a for- 
tune-teller. The inhabitants of a near-by market 
town heard of the matter. They saw an oppor- 
tunity to aid the great statesman in unloading 
a part of his enormous wealth and made a league 
with the fortune-teller. The graveyard was 
located directly across the main road leading 
into their market town. Li Hung Chang bought 
the spot at a great price. Travellers going to 
the market town must now make a circuit 
around the burying ground in order to reach the 
place, but the city elders fattened their pocket- 
books in the deal. 

In one home to which the charlatan had 
been called to locate the proper burial spot, re- 
verses came to the family in rapid succession. 
They called back the man and since he had 
guaranteed to select a lucky place, demanded of 
him that he make good his guarantee. He re- 
visited the spot and made farther investigations. 
He found that luck had departed from the place 
since he had selected it and offered to find a 
better piece of ground, — for a consideration, and 
the family paid it. 

A mother is deluded into the belief that the 


spirit of a dead babe may at times be coaxed 
back to the body from which it has departed. 
In the evening twilight one may see a basket 
sitting by the side of an earth-god shrine. From 
a httle distance away the voice of the bereaved 
mother comes floating to our ears. " Little 
Love, come back, come back." The basket 
contains a little garment and some appetizing 
food. Will not the sight and smell of things 
familiar to the little one bring it back to its 
former surroundings and cause it to enter the 
body once more? Oh, the hopelessness of the 
heathen mother's cry ! 

There came to a Chinese home three girls in 
succession. They longed for a boy. What 
heathen home does not ? The fourth baby came 
and their cup of happiness was full, for it was a 
boy. The many-coloured eggs, announcing the 
happy event and calling for the congratulations 
of the neighbours, were sent to every home on 
the street. The baby grew for six months into 
a fat chubby boy, then suddenly it died. There 
was a world of helpless despair in the voice of 
the father as he took the beloved little form into 
his arms and wailed out his woe. " Oh, my 
flesh, my bone, my life, my baby boy ! " 

In the darkness of the night he took the little 
body and buried it without a single funeral rite. 
He believed a demon had come to his home and 
cursed it. After that first cry of anguish he went 


on with his business and no word of the loss could be 
drawn from his lips. How could he do otherwise? 
He stood in abject fear lest the demon should 
return and bring other calamity upon his home. 

This fear of demons explains the inordinate 
love of the Chinese for wealth. Wealth and 
happiness with him are synonymous. Why 
should they not be ? With money he can buy 
up opportunities for graft. He can purchase 
official position. He can distort justice and 
escape punishment. He can build about his 
home and life a wall that will keep out retribu- 
tion, the inquisitiveness of official parasites and 
even the swift and terrifying vengeance of a 
united clan of poorer folk. 

Considering that hell is very similar in organi- 
zation to the Chinese yamen, why can he not 
purchase his way through purgatory and make 
a final escape into the realms of eternal bliss ? 
When one becomes so great as a viceroy or 
prince he may even buy from the emperor the 
title of a god and not only escape any possible 
punishment in the after world but at once be 
raised to a position of honour and power where 
he may still farther influence the destiny of men 
who live after him. Then get money and, while 
getting it, get plenty. So the Chinese learn to 
walk over the prostrate forms of their brothers 
for gold and make suffering-stricken humanity 
a ladder by which they may ascend to heaven itself. 


In the face of these time-honoured customs 
and ingrained beUefs, it has been a superhuman 
task to impress the Chinese with the value of a 
better way. Yet the changes now taking place 
in the empire show it not to be an impossible 
task. The missionary has been compelled to 
recognize the attitude of the people towards their 
religious beliefs. He has had to acknowledge 
his own inability to change the conditions. 
Nothing short of the power of God could have 
broken down these Chinese walls. It required 
the constant manifestation of that infinite power 
in the living missionary to affect the wonderful 
ends attained. 

Missionary homes, erected for comfort and 
convenience, unhampered by superstitious dread 
of danger hovering about changes in archi- 
tecture; haunted and unlucky buildings of 
their own, rented by missionaries and success- 
fully used for chapels and schools, have made 
the people doubt the power of evil spirits. Land 
for Chinese Christian cemeteries has been pur- 
chased without the aid of the fortune-teller. 
Lectures in chemistry, experiments with elec- 
trical apparatus, modern surgery and medicine, 
the use of the microscope, have revealed to the 
Chinese hitherto undreamed of forces with which 
demons have no relationship and have proven 
master agencies in obtaining a favourable hear- 
ing for Christianity. 



TWO mistakes are being made concern- 
ing the type of Chinese who compose 
the rank and file of converts. For- 
eigners who are unfriendly towards Christian 
missions declare that there is not a sincere Chi- 
nese Christian convert, while supporters of Chris- 
tian missions have received an impression that a 
convert from heathenism becomes at once a stead- 
fast, enthusiastic, spirit-filled follower of Jesus 
Christ. Both parties are wrong. 

Opposers of Christian work in China are found 
among steamship officers, keepers of hotels and 
other business men whose own lives are inimical 
to Christianity. These men disparage the work 
of missionaries and say that they are living lux- 
uriously in fine houses and doing more harm 
among the natives than good. Many sincere 
Christian business men are found in the mercan- 
tile centres of China who are loyal supporters of 
mission work, but it is a sad commentary on 
civilization that large numbers, who leave their 
own lands to engage in business in the Orient, 
have gone into voluntary banishment from their 



native lands, because their evil lives made living 
among old associates obnoxious. The spirit of 
restless adventure has led them to seek a place 
where they might cast morality to the winds. 
The influence of these men among the heathen 
is one of the worst obstacles against which mis- 
sionaries must batde. It is not strange that such 
men see nothing in Christian missions worthy of 
their approval. 

But have Christians in the home land the right 
to expect that a Christian born out of heathenism 
shall at once become a perfect moral character, 
an achievement which has been found impossible 
of accomplishment even among converts in civ- 
ilized lands ? Back of the American extends a 
long line of Christian ancestry reaching into the 
dim past. Back of the Chinese convert is a clear 
line traceable many times farther, a line per- 
petually enshrouded in paganistic darkness. 
Surrounding the convert from heathenism are 
gathering still idolatrous influences, holding him 
down and clouding his mind and heart. The 
new Christian in America finds himself sur- 
rounded with all the elevating influences of a 
Christian nation. Let us be just to the Christian 
born out of heathenism and not expect too great 
a change in him at first. 

Physicians say the proper way to treat a sick 
person is to have begun with his grandparents. 
A missionary acknowledges the same truth in 


the laws of heredity, when he speaks of the 
superiority of a second and third generation 
Christian over one just born out of heathenism. 

When a Chinese has been enrolled in the 
membership of the church, he has merely placed 
himself in a position in which he may begin to 
imbibe the spirit of the Gospel. He is giving the 
missionary an opportunity to mould another dis- 
torted life into the image of Christ. The new 
Christian must be fed as a babe. The mission- 
ary is given access to his home and family. The 
connection between religion and life can be 
taught him. Clean language, kindness towards 
one's children, parents, wife and servants ; the 
value of prayer and family worship, of rest on 
the Lord's day and worship with His people ; the 
education of children, necessity of living at peace 
with one's neighbours ; all these lessons can now 
be taught to the new convert with the possibility 
of his seeking to do them. 

To the medical missionary comes the privilege 
of instructing the new babe in Christ concerning 
the desirability of observing the laws of hygiene, 
sanitation, quarantine and preservation of health. 
These whose lives have been so evil must needs 
be rebuked many times in regard to gambling, 
graft, lying, stealing and quarrelling with neigh- 
bours. They must be taught social purity and 
enlightened upon the grace of giving. Over and 
over must these lessons be given. In summer 


heat and winter cold, on the road, in the home 
and in the Lord's house must the missionary be 
instant in season and out of season, rebuking, ex- 
horting and encouraging. It is so hard for them 
to connect conduct and rehgion, to understand 
that Christliness is living like Christ. 

The miracle of missions is that some so early 
grasp the essence of the Gospel and become 
spirit-filled followers of Christ On the other 
hand, the thing that breaks the missionary's 
heart is to see some one, for whom he has 
laboured so long and suffered so much, some one, 
who for a while seemed to catch the Spirit of 
Christ, reveal himself in the end as an arch de- 
ceiver and rush back into the old life of sin and 
again become openly what he had been all the 
time secretly. 

Again we repeat it. The miracle of modern 
missions is that so many grasp the essence of the 
Gospel and become living examples of the power 
of Christ to transform man. How often during 
the dark hours of the Boxer trouble did this fact 
stand out illuminated in the martyrdom of some 
Chinese Christian. The bowing before an idol, 
the burning of a stick of incense, the lighting of 
a candle in the temple would have saved lives, 
but men died rather than compromise with idol- 
atry. They were bound and cast into graves. 
They were buried by inches but they held fast to 
their faith. They stood calmly by while their 


relatives and friends were beheaded and went 
calmly down to death with a prayer on their lips. 
Their enemies stood amazed at their steadfast- 
ness. When Christians might have escaped 
they turned back to warn the beloved mission- 
aries. When left alone at their posts the evan- 
gelists and preachers went on encouraging and 
strengthening the trembling church. Enemies 
loitered in and told them that to-morrow the 
buildings would be burned and their lives taken. 
Their characteristic answer would be, "I have 
lived in the church and it will make a good coffin 
in which to die." 

This same steadfastness has been manifest all 
through the history of mission work in China. 
Up near Hankow a weaver, while sick in the 
mission hospital, learned of Christ and followed 
Him. He went back to his brothers and told 
them of his new faith. They stormed, plead and 
threatened but he refused to leave Christ. They 
compelled him to do his full quota of weaving, 
hoping to hinder his attendance upon worship 
and wean him from his new life. He worked his 
loom until midnight on Saturday, walked a long 
distance on Sunday morning and returned to his 
loom at midnight Sunday in order to do his 
share of the weaving. The neighbours advised 
him to leave his brothers and offered their homes 
as an asylum. He refused their kind offer and 
kept at his self-appointed task. ** If I leave 


them," he said, ** they will never become fol- 
lowers of Christ." In ten years he had won the 
last one of them and then they turned to him and 
said, ** You go out and preach and we will sup- 
port you." 

We opened in Chu Cheo a chapel on a main 
thoroughfare and discovered after it had been 
rented that we were directly opposite a black- 
smith shop. The fronts of both buildings being 
entirely open to the street, the pounding on the 
anvil on the one side made preaching on the 
other very difficult. We wondered if we had 
made a mistake in renting the place. Very 
grateful were we when at times the pounding 
would cease and the blacksmith would be seen 
sitting on the benches listening to the preaching. 
After two years we gave up the place and rented 
one situated in a better location. The only 
person directly won by the two years of preach- 
ing in the place was the blacksmith himself. 
He began working quietly among his neigh- 
bours. They, too, had often sat and listened to 
our preaching. He gathered them into his shop 
for an evening reading of the Scriptures. When 
he could persuade his assistants to come, he 
would bring them to the Sunday services. At 
the call for volunteer street preachers he was al- 
ways ready to respond. A number of his neigh- 
bours have already confessed their faith in Christ. 

One morning while we were holding worship 


with the hospital patients and servants, a young 
man rushed in and disturbed the worship. A 
severe attack of fever had deranged his mind 
and left him temporarily insane. His parents 
were unable to control him. There are no 
asylums in China for such unfortunates. Hea- 
thenism is not philanthropic. As long as he 
harmed no one he went where he pleased. One 
who becomes violently insane is shackled and 
chained. This young man became the sport for 
children upon the street. They would follow 
him, jeering at him and pelting him with sticks 
and mud. Chinese would drive him from their 
doors with curses. He would come into our 
medical assistants' room and slyly make away 
with pencils and pens. They bore with him 
patiently and treated him gently. 

When he recovered his mind he did not forget 
the treatment he had received, either from the 
heathen or the Christians. He asked our serv- 
ants to buy some Christian literature for him and 
invited them to the place where he worked. 
One Christmas day one of them came to us 
with the request that a Mr. Wang wished to be 

"But who is Mr. Wang?" 

" Don't you remember," they said, " that 
crazy fellow who used to come in and disturb our 

Yes, we remembered him. But had he recov- 


ered and did he know anything about what be- 
coming a Christian means ? 

This is the answer he gave us. " When I was 
sick, I received very different treatment from the 
Christians than I did from my own friends. I 
knew it then and have not forgotten it now. 
Since I have recovered, I have been studying 
your Bible iot I thought if becoming a Christian 
means to treat people the way you treated me, 
I wanted to become one." 

Upon the day on which we commemorate the 
birth of our Lord, Mr. Wang was buried in bap- 
tism with his Master and made the day his birth- 
day in the new life. Little did we suppose that 
we would be able to win a soul by being gentle 
towards one thus deranged. 

In the Nanking Christian College there was a 
young man who, while a member of the church, 
was careless about his religious life and work in 
school. His teachers looked upon him as one of 
the hopeless ones. He had plenty of ability but 
little ambition. 

Dr. Li, a Chinese whose soul is filled with the 
burning power of the Holy Spirit, has been in 
recent days going up and down the Yangtse 
valley stirring the Church and imparting to them 
a knowledge of what Christ can do in the Chinese 
Christian. He came to Nanking and for two 
weeks gathered the students of the various col- 
leges into daily meetings. One of the first stirred 


by the preaching of Dr. Li was this heretofore 
careless student. He surrendered himself to God 
and went to work. He went to his non-Christian 
parents and plead with them until he broke them 
down and won them to Christ. 

In the college he began with a small group of 
the students and became their leader. They 
stirred the school. The spirit spread to the 
Christian Girls' School, resulting in the conver- 
sion of a number but, more important, trans- 
formed the life of the entire student body. They 
banded themselves still closer together and went 
out on the streets and in the chapels on Sundays 
preaching the Gospel. 

When the summer vacation came they planned 
a more far-reaching campaign. Instead of 
spending the time teaching private classes in 
western studies and earning money for them- 
selves, they went out, two by two, to all the sta- 
tions and outstations within reach carrying the 
inspiration to other bands. 

The girls likewise visited places within their 
reach and came back bearing witness of the ac- 
companying, protecting power of God with them 
in the ministry. Men and women were led to 
confess hidden sins they had been harbouring. 
Timid disciples of the Master caught the fire and 
became active witnesses for Him. This revival 
in the Yangtse valley is only one of many that 
have been taking place all over China. Dr. Li, 


the evangelist, revealed to those students a con- 
ception of Christianity which the missionaries 
had been unable to impart, but even beyond the 
work he did, before the local circles were 
reached, God stirred a careless young student to 

Many more illustrations will appear elsewhere 
showing the reality of Christianity among the 
Chinese. Remember, however, when meditating 
upon them, that human nature is everywhere the 
same. Other things being equal, the power of 
the Holy Spirit operates upon the heart of a 
Chinese, Hindoo, German, Englishman, or 
American in practically the same manner and 
with the same results. Be the skin of a man 
white, black or yellow, love finds the same re- 
sponse from each heart. The Gospel, giving the 
hope of eternal life, belongs to them alike and 
will, when presented in the spirit of Christ, find 
a like reception from them all. 



WHEN we first went to China we were 
impressed with the wisdom of finding 
a Chinese who, by reason of close as- 
sociation with us, could accurately represent to 
his fellow countrymen our mission to and desire 
for them. He would save us many mistakes and 
correct many erroneous impressions concerning 
us that might spring up in their minds. We 
were so strongly influenced by the thought that 
we were led to pray most earnestly to have such 
an one led to us, — and Chen Li-seng came. 

He had been a Chinese pedagogue for nine 
years. He was of the '* old school " type. The 
children who had sat at his feet had committed 
the Classics to memory in the same ancient 
stereotyped way that their ancestors had done 
a thousand years before. Chen himself was a 
first degree graduate, could repeat the thirteen 
classical books from memory, write essays and 
compose poems. In these accomplishments he 
was the same as all his fellow literati. 

But in other things he was strangely different 
from most of them. He was a consistent be- 
liever in and follower of Confucius. He sought 



to copy the ancient sage in his standard of mo- 
rality. He was a filial son and a worshipper of 
his ancestors. He did not gamble, accept bribes, 
or smoke opium. He did not believe in the wor- 
ship of idols yet could not explain the occult 
power that seemed to dwell within their inani- 
mate forms. Chen was one of those isolated ex- 
amples found among the heathen, " a seeker after 
righteousness" ; yet he was satisfied that he was 
receiving a full measure of righteousness in his 
imitating of the high moral standard laid down 
by the great teacher Confucius. 

To Chen a man who accepted the foreign 
doctrine of Christianity, was merely seeking the 
'' loaves and fishes." He despised such even as he 
despised the foreigners. Before he came to us as 
a teacher, he had never conversed with a for- 
eigner and never had had a desire to do so. He 
had never seen a Bible or been inside a chapel. 
Two things led him to consent to become our 
teacher ; the regularity of the pay-day and a 
growing desire which he shared with all edu- 
cated Chinese, to know something of things 

Now a missionary must not only learn to 
speak the Chinese language but more important 
than that, he must become thoroughly conver- 
sant with Chinese customs and be able to adapt 
himself to them if he would win the people. Un- 
less the confidence of the teacher is gained, he 


will not readily explain their customs, as these 
are very closely entwined about the heart of 
every follower of Confucius. The missionary, 
finding these customs so antipodal to those 
which have surrounded his life, is liable to make 
light of the Chinese ways and manners and lose 
the confidence of his teacher before he fairly 
gains it. So the contact with the man who sits 
daily across the table from the new missionary is 
a vital matter. The whole future usefulness of 
the new recruit on the mission field will be af- 
fected by his attitude towards his Chinese 

We became the pupils of Chen Li-seng. He 
did not know a word of English, nor we a word 
of Chinese. Kind friends helped us over the dif- 
ficult places for a few days. A dictionary, the 
fruit of the experience of missionaries for a cen- 
tury back, was at our elbow. Mr. Chen wrote 
simple conversations upon every-day practical 
subjects, then slowly read them to us and we re- 
peated them after him. He was the first Chinese 
we ever understood and the first to understand 

When we had progressed a little in the use of 
the language he took us to the street, to stores, 
into shops. We called upon the high classes and 
talked with the low. We conversed with masons 
and carpenters, he ever helping us over the rough 
places. He wrote contracts for us, cleared up 

MY "TIMOTHY'' 129 

misunderstandings between us and the servants 
and formed the first reUgious expressions we 
made in the Chinese language. Everywhere he 
was at our side, correcting, interpreting, guard- 
ing us against pitfalls. 

It was a long while before we began to dimly 
realize that he was the one whom God was lead- 
ing to us in answer to our prayer. He had 
shown himself in many ways to be unfavourable 
to Christianity. Not till long afterwards did we 
find the reason for his treating it so fairly and 
studying it so carefully. He attended the serv- 
ices on Lord's Days, often was present at 
prayer-meetings, and would willingly and lucidly 
aid our stammering tongues in explaining the 
Gospel to visitors who came to call on us. 

At times he was led to speak very strongly 
against evils which were degrading and demoral- 
izing his country. The forcing of the opium 
traffic upon China by the English rankles in 
every Chinese heart and Chen was a Chinese. 
Nevertheless, he would with equal force denounce 
the grafting in their official circles and the too 
flagrant cases of miscarriage of justice for which 
their courts are notorious. 

Yet he believed there were other men like him- 
self who were living high moral lives and he 
would resent the wholesale condemnation of their 
nation by unwise evangelists. ** I have been 
with you for a year and a half. Have /wronged 


you in any way ? '* He gloried in his morality 
and to class him with the degenerate of China 
wounded his proud spirit. 

But his next question startled us and showed 
that, after all his pride in a moral character, the 
leaven of the Gospel was working within his 
heart. ** Suppose a man secretly beUeves in 
Christ as his Saviour. Must he be an avowed 
follower to be saved ? " 

" If a man really believes in Jesus Christ as 
his Saviour, he cannot be a secret follower. He 
cannot help speaking." Ah, there is a vital 
energy in Christianity not to be found in Con- 
fucian ethics and the difference was dawning upon 

We began to call his attention to what it means 
for an educated Chinese to follow Christ. He 
would be despised and rejected from fellow- 
ship by all his fellow literati. He could not take 
a step which would bring greater anguish to his 
parents. For one of his rank to become a Chris- 
tian would as greatly wound his father as for an 
American father to see his boy become a gam- 
bler, drunkard and criminal. All this we told 

" These things will not deter me if I come to 
believe in Him as my Saviour." And yet when, 
in his heart, he began to acknowledge that 
Christ might be just that to him, it did deter 
him. Could he break over the traditions of 


China and become such an unfilial son as to thus 
wound his parents ? It took many days to fight 
out the battle. 

" I will obey my Lord first and then go to my 
parents. My Lord must come first now." That 
was his decision. 

Standing in the baptismal waters he made the 
great confession. " From my heart I believe 
Jesus Christ to be the Son of God and my 
Saviour." Then he went home to receive not 
the blessing but the chastisement of terribly 
wounded parents. He accepted it all humbly 
and patiently although it tore his heart almost as 
much as theirs were torn. Then to show them 
the sincerity of his profession and the change in 
his heart, he began sending home as a Christian 
more money than he had as a Confucianist. 

One day he told us why he had been led to 
consider Christianity so carefully. '* I was daily 
living within the walls of your home. I saw the 
regard with which you and your wife treated 
each other. Your wife is educated. She is your 
equal. You recognize her equality and love 
reigns in your home. We have nothing like that 
in our Chinese homes. So I have been studying 
the Scriptures to see if it were, as you said, the 
natural fruitage of Christianity, for I long to have 
such a home. It has led me to accept Christ for 
myself and the home I hope to have." 

He had been married just after coming to us 


as a teacher. His wife was ten years his junior, 
only seventeen at the time, and had had very 
little experience to guide her in the new life into 
which she was thrown. She had not been asked 
whether she would ** love, honour and obey " this 
man to whose home she was carried. Neither 
had Chen been given any voice in the matter. 
He took what was chosen for him " sight unseen." 
He might have been a little more careful about 
the matter, had he caught his glimpse of a Chris- 
tian home earlier. 

Since he was living away from his parents' 
home at the time of his marriage, he, according 
to Chinese custom, left his wife in the home of 
his parents. His mother was above the average 
woman in character, but she and the new bride 
did not harmonize well in disposition and it 
looked as though he would be handicapped from 
the first in his desire to build up a happy home. 
He was educated. She was illiterate. Both 
were somewhat refined in nature as their homes 
were of the better class of people. But he was 
now a Christian and she was a heathen. 

He rented a place in Chu Cheo, furnished it as 
well as he was able and brought his wife to the 
new home. He began teaching her to read and 
treated her kindly. It was really his first oppor- 
tunity to become acquainted with her. Under 
his gentle care and guidance she developed won- 
derfully. In six months great was his joy to 

MY "TIMOTHY'^ 133 

have her express a desire to also become a fol- 
lower of Jesus Christ. Now there were two, who 
were seeking to make a home beautiful. 

For four years he had been teaching us. He 
had gone into the dispensary and hospital where 
he not only aided us in speech, but his willing 
hands had washed and dressed the ulcers, given 
anesthetics and prepared medicines. He had 
taken his turn in teaching and preaching to the 
patients. When we went on itineraries, he often 
accompanied us and in the market towns would 
step into the difficult places and aid us in making 
friends. He taught in the Sunday-school and 
sometimes would stand in the pulpit. He was 
becoming a true " Timothy.'* 

Every Chinese seems born with a desire to 
gain riches. Tradition has instilled into their 
minds that if there is any possibility of obtaining 
happiness in this world or the next, money will 
obtain it. Happiness and wealth are, therefore, 
synonymous in the popular mind. 

Chen saw many avenues through which he, as 
a Christian, might legitimately prosper. He had 
studied western learning ever since coming to us. 
He had gained a considerable knowledge of 
modern medicine. He could take photographs. 
He had gained a knowledge of the English 
language which would qualify him for govern- 
ment positions at several times the salary he was 
receiving from the mission. Why should he not 


enter business and with his larger salary support 
several evangelists instead of merely doing the 
work of one man himself ? Would not he, as a 
business man, have greater influence for Christ 
than one who was under the pay of the mission ? 

While in the midst of this struggle with him- 
self, the Christians in the district took a step 
towards self-support and decided to jointly sup- 
port a local pastor. Their plan was to place the 
pastor in the central congregation at Chu Cheo 
and have him visit the other congregations at 
intervals. They were given the opportunity to 
choose the one they desired and the choice fell 
upon Chen. He was the best educated, had ex- 
ecutive ability and unselfish devotion to Chris- 
tian service. He took the position reluctantly 
as he was not yet ready to declare himself per- 
manently for the ministry. 

In a two years' pastorate he transformed the 
district into a well-organized working body. He 
stood square against using the power of the 
Church in legal matters and selfish ends. He 
became the brains of the circle of evangelists and 

The Christians of the Central China Christian 
mission hold annually a general convention. 
Chen's ability and blameless Christian life were 
being recognized in these larger gatherings. 
For two years he served as their secretary and 
then they kept him as their president for another 


'^^',^^m ' 



'J^..^^^' f ' 



Chinese Christians in convention. 


two years. The missionaries organized an an- 
nual Bible Institute for the evangelists and pas- 
tors. The lectures were at first given by the 
missionaries. Chen was the first to be raised 
from the place of pupil to the position of teacher. 
He led the devotions, presided over various 
meetings and in emergency gave most acceptably 
a course of lectures. Had he been willing to 
accept the place he could have had the pastorate 
of the largest congregation in the mission, but 
his love for the local field was too strong. 

In the midst of this larger field of activity, the 
long fight between money and the ministry which 
had been striving away in his heart, came to an 
end. At the close of a local convention when 
the delegates were voicing the inspiration, which 
they had received from the meeting, he arose and 
made the final declaration. " I long wanted to 
become rich and I thought it was for the sake of 
the Gospel. I now know that God has wanted 
to use me to make you all rich in the knowledge 
of His Word and to that end I henceforth conse- 
crate myself." 

The effect upon his own home and relatives 
will be the best commentary upon this step he 
took. What could he have done that would 
have more likely overcome the antagonism of 
his parents than to have turned his ability into 
money-making? They would naturally have 
reaped the benefit of his wealth. The first 


noticeable step following his final decision for the 
ministry was when his wife forgot her diffidence 
and began to publicly teach and lead the women 
to Christ, The next was when his nephew was 
baptized. The last victory is recorded in his 
quaint English when in writing a letter he says, 
" My mother will trust Christ, but my father 
wants to trust God and gods." May the day 
soon come when his father, too, will be willing 
to trust God alone and forsake the gods. 



AT a recent commencement of the Nanking 
Christian Girls' School the church build- 
ing, in which the exercises were held, 
was crowded to the doors. The windows were 
thrown open and the Chinese who could not gain 
admittance, crowded around these that they 
might see and hear. The rich and influential 
men and women of that important Chinese city 
had eagerly responded to the invitations sent 
them to be present on this occasion and filled all 
the main body of the building. For the first 
time in China's history, her leaders are struggling 
with the problem of the education of the hitherto 
despised half of her race. They have become 
interested in what missionaries are doing for 
China's womanhood. Clad in their silks, those 
men and women walked into a Christian church 
and listened with rapt attention to the program 
of music, essays and speeches in which a Chris- 
tian tone was dominant. 

The last speaker on the program was a little 
ten year old girl whose part it was to explain the 
purpose of Christian missions in opening schools 
for girls. She spoke to an audience, the large 



part of whom were atheists or idolaters. Many 
of them had sanctioned the frequent practice in 
China of destroying their girl babes. Had she 
told them her own history it would have, in an 
even more striking way, explained the aim of 
missions. She, herself, had been thrown out by 
her parents and left to die. Had it not been for 
the work of missionaries she would have long 
since been lost in the multitudes of babes de- 
stroyed by the practice of infanticide. 

Mrs. Shi of the Yu-ho-tsz village in Anhwui 
Province, is as consecrated a woman as can be 
found in the Church of Christ. Yet twenty years 
ago she was no better than the mass of ignorant, 
superstitious and unmoral women found in China. 
Fifteen years ago she became a follower of 

About ten years ago she was going down to 
the stream back of her house to wash the rice for 
the morning meal. Down by the edge of the 
stream she found the body of a new-born girl 
babe with its little limbs immersed in the edge of 
the cold stream. In the darkness of the night it 
had been rolled down the bank by heartless par- 
ents, they expecting that it would roll into the 
water and be drowned. They had not quite suc- 
ceeded in their plan, but the cold water and chilly 
night air had well-nigh accomplished the task. 

A heathen woman would likely have glanced 
around to see if any one were looking and then 


kicked the body into the stream. A new-born 
love in Mrs. Shi's heart caused her to pick up the 
half-lifeless form and hurry with it back to her 
rooms. She worked over it for hours until the 
blood once more circulated through the sluggish 
veins and a hungry cry awarded her work. 

Perhaps Mrs. Shi would have stopped appalled 
at the task before her, had she taken time to 
think, but she was too busy saving life to think. 
Not till life was once more freely flowing through 
the little body did she stop to consider what she 
had done and face the future. How she suc- 
ceeded in carrying that little one through the fol- 
lowing years will always be a mystery and a 

The Chinese in that part of the country have 
cows but they have never used them except as 
plow animals. The people neither drink milk 
nor eat butter. Prepared foods are a product of 
more advanced countries and are practically un- 
known to the Chinese, The only food they have 
ever developed for feeding babes who have been 
robbed of their natural birthright is rice water or 
rice gruel. 

But with these accessories Mrs. Shi started un- 
daunted on her task of saving a castaway babe. 
From kind missionary friends she could at times 
obtain condensed milk. Many, many times dur- 
ing the first year or two did she go up to some 
Chinese mother with that babe in her arms and 


plead that it might for a time lie upon a life-giv- 
ing mother breast. She called the little one, 
*' Little Love." She poured upon her the wealth 
of a mother affection. No trial seemed too hard, 
no task too great, if it would minister towards 
preserving the life of this babe, denied as it was 
of its rightful heritage. 

There, in that church, ten years later, Little 
Love stood upon the platform before the great 
men and elegant women of Nanking. It was 
through the grace of God that she was there. 
She, who had been cast out by her own parents 
at birth ; who had been caught up and nurtured 
by one clothed in the body of despised woman- 
hood ; who had been educated and refined by 
Christianity ; she, Little Love, is an emblem of 
the new girlhood soon to be given to the other 
half of China's little ones when Christ comes to 
reign there. 

In times past this oriental nation has had little 
love to waste upon her girls. The perpetuation 
of the family name and line was, in their minds, 
the important object in the rearing of children. 
The boy was the prime factor in such an under- 
taking. Their girls, when grown up, must be 
lost to the home of their parents and assist in the 
perpetuation of some other line and name. To 
rear them was somewhat of a thankless task done 
for the benefit of some one else. 

Then, in a land where famine frequently deci- 


mates the population, and where the poor die by 
the roadside uncared for ; where the great burn- 
ing question is " How shall I get enough to eat 
and live " ; is it strange that parents should have 
little love to waste upon those whom they are 
taught are useless appendages? And is it 
strange, when the future holds nothing but 
dreary searching for enough to keep life in one's 
own body, that the strangling of a new-born 
babe before it has had opportunity to breathe 
God's free air, should appear to such distorted 
minds more like an act of mercy than a crime 
against moral law ? 

So the missionary sees the little bodies floating 
in the scum of the ponds or thrown out by the 
roadside and half eaten by the wolfish dogs. It 
is not necessary to open the little bundle of 
matting found by the side of the city wall to know 
what it contains. Shanghai has its hexagonal 
baby tower into which their little bodies may be 
cast. Nanking has its temple to which they may 
be brought by parents who cannot, or care not to, 
bury the bodies. Men, in order to accumulate 
merit for themselves and make their own entrance 
into heaven more sure, subscribe towards the 
burying of these little bodies and many are the 
graves dug for them. 

Buddhists in certain quarters have been inspired 
to establish orphanages. A circular bucket, hung 
upon a pivot, is fixed in the outer wall. One 


side of the bucket is open and swung out to the 
street. Any person who so desires may place a 
babe therein and swing the bucket in. It will be 
received without question and nurses will be 
called in to rear the babe. But to what end is 
this seeming charity done ? 

Slavery, largely of little girls, still exists in 
Sinim. Families who may wish a girl servant 
find the solution in buying one of these waifs and 
rearing it as a slave. Sometimes they treat it 
well as though it were their own child. But fre- 
quently there creep out to the world stories 
of terrible treatment. Houses of ill-fame are 
found in all their cities. The girls in them are 
veritable slaves. Dressed in gorgeous raiment 
to attract the trade, they are often displayed 
upon the public streets. Agents who have 
no other business furnish, buy and kidnap 
girls for these houses. Perhaps such traffic is 
carried on in all countries. But when an orphan- 
age is established and supported by philanthropy 
to supply such a demand it ceases to be worthy 
of our admiration. 

Which is worse, to rear a girl and condemn 
her to a life of shame or make away with the 
helpless infant ? That is the question which faces 
multitudes of Chinese mothers. Often they are 
not to blame either for bringing the little one into 
the world or for its going out of the world. The 
father has the power of life and death over his 


entire family. Sitting in our comfortable homes, 
surrounded by every comfort, and far removed 
from such scenes and sufferings, it is easy for us 
to judge and condemn. It becomes another 
question when we stand face to face with the 
awful problem itself. 

The Confucian classics teach that a woman 
may be divorced for any one of seven reasons, 
such as being a gossip, a scold, sterile, unfaithful 
to her husband and so on. No suggestion is 
given as to how a woman may divorce her hus- 
band. It was not thought of. The classics teach 
that a girl should be obedient to her parents, a 
married woman to her husband and a widow to 
her eldest son. No suggestion is made concern- 
ing her education. Her mission is to bear sons 
and play a very humble part in making a home. 

What, then, has brought about this changed atti- 
tude ? Why should Chinese leaders begin to be 
interested in girls' schools opened by missionaries 
and why should they themselves seek to open other 
such schools ? Neither commercial nor political 
relations with other nations have caused the 
change. The change has come by reason of 
the hundreds of homes established throughout 
the country by missionaries. The revelation of 
what a woman can be when she has been reared 
and educated amid Christian influences and given 
an equal opportunity for development, has read- 
justed their viewpoint. 


** We did not know that it was possible to de- 
velop our women, to make them our equals. 
Neither had we dreamed it possible to find pleas- 
ure and congenial fellowship in association with 
one of the other sex. We must have such homes 
as you have. We must educate our girls. We 
can see now that these things must be a part of 
our reform. China cannot be elevated to an 
equality with other nations unless we make our 
homes equal to your homes." Thus the change 
is coming. It has been long in coming, but God 
has heard the cry of downtrodden womanhood 
and is staying the hand of her oppressors. Little 
girls are beginning to count, even in China. 



WHEN one sees her a few yards away 
she does not appear especially attract- 
ive. She looks too much like an old 
plodding country woman, and such she is. Her 
shoulders are stooped. Her gait is lumbering 
as though she had walked over many uneven 
places. Her hands and face are wrinkled and 
sunburned. Her ready-made clothing is made 
of indigo-coloured cloth and much worn. No, 
she is very litde different from a thousand other 
country women when seen at a distance. And 
a thousand pass her without even bestowing a 
glance upon her as she quietly makes her way 
over the uneven Chinese streets. 

But look at her when she gets a little closer and 
something in her face shows that she is ddfTerent 
from most of the other Chinese women. She, at 
least, seems to know where she is going. She 
does not stare at the store displays like the coun- 
try women usually do. Her glance is very direct, 
too, and there is a kindly look in her eyes that 
makes her face seem attractive even though her 
general appearance is not. She must be nearly 



sixty years old, perhaps five feet four inches in 
height, — just ordinary in general appearance. 

When Mrs. Gerould, one of America's Christian 
women, started to build for her husband a monu- 
ment, she went across to India to choose the spot. 
It is a complete mission station in the heart of 
India by which she commemorates his memory. 
When she had completed the arrangements for 
the establishment of that memorial station, she 
came on around the globe to China and stopped 
for a few days with friends among the mission- 
aries in that country. 

She had only three days in which to become 
acquainted with Mrs. Shi, this plodding country 
woman, — three days in an unknown tongue. Mrs. 
Gerould was a well-dressed, wholesome. Christian 
woman and Mrs. Shi was a very plainly dressed, 
Chinese, Christian country woman. Their cus- 
toms were different. The great chasm of antipodal 
languages separated them. That they could write 
the term '' Christian " in connection with each of 
their characters was about the only thing they held 
in common. It would seem a difficult task to pro- 
ceed far in acquaintanceship when only three 
days were to be given to the task. 

Somewhere in that short space of time the 
motherly heart of the American woman discov- 
ered its counterpart within the bosom of her 
Chinese sister. She loved the two missionary 
women who were living and working in that iso- 


lated interior station of Chu Cheo and it had not 
required a common tongue for her to find out 
that Mrs. Shi loved them as well as she. 

When the three days had flown by and Mrs. 
Gerould was in the sedan chair and the coolies 
had placed their shoulders under the poles to bear 
her back to Nanking, Mrs. Shi came hurrying 
back from some errand of mercy to say her good- 
by. The two women broke out in a stream of 
words in two languages expecting the missionary 
standing by to interpret for them. They stopped 
speaking almost as suddenly as they had begun. 
Language was not needed as a medium between 
them. One was holding out her hand in American 
fashion and the other was clasping her own palms 
in Chinese style, but even contrary customs could 
not be the bearer of those final messages. The 
eyes of the one, looking dimly through the tears 
straight into the heart of the other, bore the mes- 
sage of love between them. No interpreter was 
needed. And the one that they might have used 
as interpreter did not interfere or interrupt. He 
was interested in something, just then, he saw on 
the far away mountains. 

Mrs. Shi is a mother to the little village in which 
she lives. Sorrow enters none of the homes, sick- 
ness comes not anywhere, no trouble invades the 
place but that she is found in the midst of the 
afflicted ones. When the missionary women in 
Chu Cheo are left alone, their husbands being 


absent on preaching tours in the surrounding 
country, all feeling of anxiety is taken away, if 
Mrs. Shi can be with them. 

When Evangelist Shi, the story-teller, broke 
away from his opium and began to follow Christ, 
he went back to Yu-ho-tsz, his former home, and 
began work in the inn owned by Mr. Wang, Mrs. 
Shi's first husband. In the evening when his work 
was done, Mr. Shi would take a bench out in front 
of the inn and tell the story of Christ who had 
saved him. His bitterest antagonist was Mrs. 
Wang. She stormed and raged at him and led 
in the petty insults which the villagers heaped 
upon him. But in the end patience conquered 
and she became the first convert of the village to 
the new religion. 

Mr. Wang died not long afterwards and her 
relatives, both for the money they would make 
and in order to stop the spread of this " foreigners' 
religion," plotted secretly to sell her off to another 
man who lived a distance away. Men came on 
horseback in the night to kidnap her. But the 
plot had been discovered and friends had warned 
her. They aided her to capture the capturers. 
Had it been in the days before she became a Chris- 
tian they would have been sent to their homes 
with sore backs and bruised bodies, for she was 
capable in the use both of her tongue and arms. 
But she was a follower of Christ now. When she 
let them go, they went in wonder, for they had 


seen a Chinese woman under control of the Holy 

She preferred to choose her second husband for 
herself and when the proper time came she was 
married to the former inn-servant, Shi Gwei-biao. 
The Church in China has been profited by that 
marriage. The home they established has been 
a contrast to every other home in that region, — 
and a model. It is clean ; it is full of peace and 
love ; it is a centre from which radiates a ministry 
to all other homes in the region. 

For a few years the little circle of Christians 
met from house to house. Then it became neces- 
sary to open a central place of worship. Every 
home in the village is mud-walled and thatch- 
roofed. Grass and bamboo poles and even small 
trees are to be found on the hillsides for the 
cutting. They needed little else beside labour. 
Why should they not build their own chapel? 
Mr. Shi and the men laid up the walls and bound 
together the rafters. Mrs. Shi and the women 
went out to the hills with their sickles and carry- 
ing poles, cut the grass for thatch and brought 
it home on their shoulders. The men laid the 
roof, set up the rough doors and the chapel was 
done. With its whitewashed walls and its clean 
interior, it began its silent witness for purity. 

For nearly ten years the little chapel was the 
gathering-place of the church in that region. 
The membership increased and spread out into 


the surrounding country and into the neighbour- 
ing market towns. Then came the call for a 
second chapel. It must be more permanent than 
the first. Gifts came to Mr. Hunt, the mission- 
ary evangelist in Chu Cheo, from friends in 
America and England. The Chinese gave out 
of their poverty with liberal hands. Ground was 
bought in the neighbouring market town of 
Gwanwei and a larger and more permanent 
edifice was erected. Again the enthusiasm of 
Mrs. Shi was manifested. Out of her slender 
means she bought substantial, comfortable seats 
for the entire building. Had she not made this 
offering hard Chinese benches would have been 
installed in their stead. One cannot sit in that 
church without thinking of this ** Dorcas " whose 
care is always for the happiness of others. 

For four hundred miles or more to the north- 
west of Nanking there runs a highway built by 
one of the Ming emperors. Its purpose was to 
connect the cities of Nanking, Fengyang and 
Kaifeng which he had designated as his capital 
cities. It is but a caravan route over which flows 
the traffic of that region. Caravan animals, 
wheelbarrows, and a great army of travellers 
follow one another over this road in Indian file, 
making it but a series of cow-paths. No wagon 
can pass along it. The road is rough and un- 
cared for. 

This line of traffic taps at its northern end the 


regions so often visited by famine. The suffer- 
ers, when driven out by hunger, will load a few 
cooking vessels and other camping supplies on a 
wheelbarrow, perhaps build a nest in the centre 
for a baby or two, then start on their journey 
southward to the land of plenty. Day by day 
they follow the trail. By begging and petty 
thieving, they try to eke out their slender means 
until they reach their destination. They fall sick 
and exhausted by the way. The little children 
may be sold. The sick ones when too weak to 
travel, are left to the tender mercies (?) of the vil- 
lages by the way. 

These people have been the great burden upon 
the heart of Mr. and Mrs. Shi. They aid them 
to build huts, give them little articles of clothing 
and minister to their sick ones. Among the three- 
score they have won to Christ a goodly number 
have been saved through this means. Two 
evangelists and a colporteur, now in the service, 
have been thus picked up by them. A few dollars 
placed in the hands of these people bear big in- 
terest in the saving of people, and the missionaries 
have never been afraid of its being misused. 

Sometimes Mrs. Shi comes down to Chu Cheo 
to visit the missionaries. But she is never idle. 
She will take a quiet walk up some side street 
until she meets a group of women talking at the 
door of some home. In perfect Chinese style she 
will stop to listen and enter into the conversation. 


She soon is leading the talk and the women will 
invite her into the home that they may hear more. 
By and by she will be preaching to them. After 
a while the doctor, busy in his dispensary, looks 
out and sees her piloting a group of women into 
the place. She has found some woman who 
needs medical aid. She tells them of the foreign 
doctor who heals people. They have heard of 
him before but are afraid to go alone. She offers 
to come with them. Perhaps they are of the 
wealthier and more secluded class. To them 
even her offer to accompany them will not over- 
come their timidity. Then she will persuade 
them to visit the foreign lady. There their 
timidity will gradually disappear and then the 
doctor will be invited into his own house to see 
the sick person. In these ways she wins their 
confidence and drives out the antipathy they have 
formed towards the foreigner and the religion he 
is bringing to their people and her people. 

Once in a while she tramps over the sixty miles 
between her home and the school at Nanking 
where Little Love, whose life she saved when her 
parents had cast her out to drown, attends school. 
Aitsz (Little Love) is very precious to Mrs. Shi. 
Country clothes look rather shoddy down at 
Nanking. It is an important official city and the 
people there dress much finer than those who 
live north of the river. But Mrs. Shi's coarse 
clothes do not bar her from the hearts of the 


schoolgirls. They give her a royal welcome, 
for all love her. 

Four of the oldest schoolgirls attended the an- 
nual conference which was held in Chu Cheo. 
On Sunday afternoon the church was given over 
to a woman's meeting. The schoolgirls were 
the chief speakers. The house had the greatest 
crowd of women it ever held. One evening, a 
little later, when the men were having a special 
session, the girls dressed Mrs. Shi in their school 
clothing and one of them donned her country 
clothes and became a gawky country woman. In 
the parlour of one of the mission homes Mrs. Shi 
lost her identity and turned her years back to 
girlhood once more. No wonder the girls love 
her. She is one who never grows old. 

Such are a few glimpses into the life of one 
loved by missionaries and Chinese alike. She, 
it iSk who is the " hot-hearted " leader of the 
Chinese Christian women of the Chu Cheo dis- 
trict, — their " Dorcas.'' 



HIS name is Djao. His parents called 
him Lai-fu which means " Happiness 
is Come," because they were so happy 
when they found they had a boy. Outside the 
fact of his being a boy he brought them little 
happiness, for it meant one more mouth to feed 
and they were only poor farm labourers. That 
was far up in the northern province of Shansi. 

They had to work out all day and the baby 
boy was left in the end of a furrow or any other 
hollow while his mother hoed the corn and beans. 
Something went wrong for he grew up with a 
bent back. They said it was because there was 
no one to help him when he began to walk but 
more likely there was something wrong with the 
food supply. 

There was not much to remember in those 
days but an empty stomach. That seemed to be 
the most prominent thing in his little life. Some- 
where in those days his mother did not get 
enough to eat and she died. Then, after a few 
years more, a famine came and carried away his 
father. His name seemed to represent all the 
happiness they ever obtained in this world. 



A distant relative took him in charge. This 
man had been a little more successful than 
many. Eight acres of land, eight head of work- 
ing cattle, two hired men and one son were down 
to his credit. The orphaned boy's work was to 
watch the cattle as they fed by the side of the 
road or in the fields. 

It was not hard work, especially as the boy 
was getting a little nearer the proper allowance 
of rations. There was no schooling for him. 
Orphans out on a farm never dream of such a 
luxury. Very few sons of even prosperous 
farmers have this privilege. If he got enough 
to eat and did not shiver with the cold in winter 
he felt himself happy. 

But the time came when he did not have 
enough. Neither did the farmer. Another 
famine year came around and he was told that 
he was not wanted in that home. There were 
too many mouths to fill. So he found himself, a 
twelve-year-old boy, out in the world alone. No 
door was open to him, no work was to be found. 
No mother, no father, no brother, no sister, no 
anybody — just one lone boy. If he starved, if 
he died, no one would care, no one would miss 

So he began his wanderings. Every refugee 
goes south. It is warmer there and does not 
require so many clothes. Then there is a gen- 
eral impression that food and clothing can be ob- 


tained in the southern provinces if one is wiUing 
to work. Anywhere is better than in a famine 
district. People were dying there and no one 
likes to die, especially if he has no friends. So 
south he went, all alone, through three hundred 
miles of mountains and plains. 

He was a year covering that distance. Why 
should he hurry ? All he was looking for was 
food and work and shelter. Some days he 
found no food. Then he curled himself up in 
the corner of some abandoned house and **ate 
bitterness." In the cold weather he would 
gather some sticks and grass and creeping into 
such an abode, would build a bonfire in the cor- 
ner to keep himself from freezing. That was a 
bitter year. 

But all roads have an end. He slowly trav- 
elled down through Honan and entered Anhwui 
Province. Wandering around a place, called 
Mengcheng, he met a farmer one day who took 
pity on him and put him to watching his cattle. 

So great a contrast was this to his long winter 
of wanderings that it seemed as if he could never 
wish for anything greater. That was in the 
spring. All that summer he had a resting 
place. But when the fall came the work was 
done. The man had been good to him and 
when he started on the road again he had a 
warm suit of clothes on his back. 

Once again his face was turned southward and 


in a few days he had reached the city of Hwai- 
yuen. He wandered out into the country, for 
city streets did not yield as abundant supply of 
food to a homeless boy as country lanes. Hap- 
pily another farmer took pity on him and in his 
home Lai-fu was destined to stay several 

This man had a mother, a wife, a donkey and 
a cow to his credit besides his few acres. He had 
also a temper and could use it on many occa- 
sions. As usual the cow became the special 
charge of Lai-fu. The farmer used both cow 
and donkey when he plowed his fields. All the 
farmers around that region mix up their work 
animals. They may hitch together a water buf- 
falo and a cow, a cow and a horse, a donkey and 
a buffalo, or any other combination that suits 
the live stock they may possess. Sometimes 
they hitch together three animals, all different. 

After staying with this man for a few years, he 
took Lai-fu as a hired man and paid him wages. 
He was coming up in the world now. His 
wages were two dollars a year and his food. 
Now he had money of his own for which he had 
not begged. 

But the man's temper did not improve with 
age. One day Lai-fu in cutting the broom corn 
had left a part that did not appear to him ripe. 
The man ordered him to go back and cut it. He 
cut it. Then the man saw that it really was not 


ripe and let loose his tongue on the boy and he, 
in disgust, quit the job. 

Now where ? Two dollars were in his pocket 
and a fair amount of clothes on his back. Nan- 
king, the historic southern capital of China, was 
only one hundred and fifty miles away and every- 
body said plenty of work was to be found there. 
So for Nanking he started. He was now twenty 
years of age, but by reason of that bend in his 
back did not look that old. 

Two dollars would not go far on a one hundred 
and fifty mile tramp except by the most careful 
economy. There was no sleeping in inns and 
eating of fine meals by the way. When the 
farmers would let him, he slept with the cattle in 
the farm homes and by their kindness often 
gained a breakfast. When they objected he 
curled up under some stack of grain or built a 
fire in a hollow. 

But that amount of money or any other amount 
could not keep one from beggary when no work 
could be found. He hunted through Nanking 
and then with others of his class took cheap 
passage up to Wuhu, sixty miles away, but no 
work was forthcoming. He came back to Nan- 
king and retraced his steps across the river to 
Pukoh, the end of the northern caravan routes. 
He might meet some driver whom he used to 
know from the Hwaiyuen region and from him 
get a little help. So fruitless had been his quest 


in a region where it was popularly supposed that 
work was to be had for the asking, that he could 
wish himself back under the evil temper of 
the man with whom he had spent the last 

He found no caravan driver whom he knew 
but one day when he timidly asked a driver if he 
would not '' do good deeds " for merit's sake and 
give him a few cash, the man turned to him and 
asked, " Where are you from ? " 
** From Hwaiyuen." 

*• Want to go back ? " Didn't he though ? 
*' Will you help take care of my animals on 
the road if I give you your food ? " 

Was there ever a boy (for he was still a boy) 
who having passed through what he had, would 
not accept such an opportunity to return to familiar 
places ? Up there were people who knew him. 
There would be some chance of obtaining work 
and leaving this vagrant beggar life which he so 
despised. Avery humble boy followed those 
mules on their return journey to what had been 
home to him. 

With all that he had been in places where 
foreigners lived he had never seen one. Recendy 
there had come a party into Hwaiyuen and Chu 
Cheo held others. Then others were setded in 
Nanking and Wuhu. He had often heard that 
whoever consented to ** eat their religion " would 
receive a monthly stipend but it did not sound 


very reasonable and he had never sought charity 
from them. 

One evening as the journey behind those 
mules was drawing to an end and they were 
expecting on the morrow to arrive in Hwaiyuen, 
they looked back and saw a queerly dressed man 
coming along on horseback. He was accom- 
panied by a well-dressed Chinese whose clothes 
showed him to be an educated man, a teacher. 
Lai-fu knew it was a foreigner at first glance, 
even before the caravan driver muttered ** foreign 

He was, however, surprised to hear the for- 
eigner address them in Chinese and ask where 
they were expecting to stop for the night There 
were very few inns along that section of the road 
which were prepared to take care of animals over 
night, so they were all destined to stop at the 
same place and that meant much to his future. 

In the night a cold rain began which turned to 
sleet and snow and they were shut in together 
for a day. Fortunate for Lai-fu that he was in 
an inn, for while he had a warm coat, his panta- 
loons were thin cotton and one leg of those had 
been accidentally torn off above the knee. Of 
course he had no stockings and only straw sandals 
on his feet. 

He curled himself up in the straw, and got up 
as close as possible to the other Chinese who were 
sleeping together. But it grew colder and finally 


one of the Chinese got up and started a fire in 
the middle of the dirt floor around which they all 
gathered until the morning dawned. He saw the 
foreigner roll himself up in his blankets and stay 
in his bunk. There was nothing else to do. It 
was cold. 

Shut in all day by that rain and sleet the 
parties got acquainted. The caravan driver, who 
knew more about foreigners than most of them, 
conceived the happy idea of having Lai-fu attach 
himself to this one. It would rid himself of 
trouble and be not a bad thing for Lai-fu. He 
talked to the latter's teacher who was accom- 
panying him. 

To Lai-fu it did not matter much. There was a 
thrill of something new in his heart at the thought, 
the new experience of going with these people 
from the outside world of whom Chinese talked 
so much and knew so little. To go back to that 
vile-tempered farmer was not a pleasing prospect 
in view of how he had left him and it did not 
matter much where he did go so long as he got 
a sufficient amount of food and clothing. The 
foreigner seemed kind and certainly could not be 
worse than the farmer had been. 

The second morning dawned clear, but with a 
terrible cold wind blowing across those plains. 
The missionary was going on to Hwaiyuen, thir- 
teen miles farther, to see his friends there. The 
teacher had talked with him about the boy, but 


did not like to make rash promises, as beggars 
are rather a hopeless class. He told the boy to 
follow him into the city and he would get him a 
warm pair of pantaloons. 

Bravely the boy helped saddle the missionary's 
horse and started to follow him through that bit- 
ter wind. The missionary wondered whether he 
himself could ride on or be compelled to stop 
again until the day warmed. And the boy with 
torn pantaloons stood it for a while and then 
with frozen tears on his cheeks stopped by a 
friendly fire. The inn-people gave him a bowl 
of rice gruel. He waited until the sun had 
warmed up the air and then plodded on into the 
city and hunted up the residence of the mission- 

The teacher took him to a clothing store. ** We 
live one hundred miles back on the road over 
which you have been coming, at Chu Cheo," ex' 
plained the teacher to him. '' The roads will be 
muddy and the weather bad. You can do as 
you please. If you want to go back with us, all 
right. If you don't, the clothes are still yours." 

That did not sound very much as though they 
were trying to get any one to follow them. Well, 
he tramped back over that muddy road to Chu 
Cheo, one hundred miles, in three days. The 
missionary began to believe the boy had some 
mettle in him. He was given work to do and he 
did it. Never complaining, he ate what was 




Djao Lai-fu and his charges. 


Little ^Missionaries. 


given him, slept where they put him and stood by 
his job. No money had been promised and none 
was given. He was well treated and was well 

The ways in those missionary compounds were 
strange to him. In the morning they would all 
gather together and read out of a Book and then 
stand up and shut their eyes while one would 
seem to be talking to some One. Every seventh 
day they would stop working and gather in a 
large building and study that Book some more. 
Lai-fu had been in temples when idols were be- 
ing worshipped and had often bowed before these 
in the farmer's house himself, but he had never 
seen anything like this. 

They were talking about one true God and His 
Son, whom, they said, had died for us because 
we were sinners and, if we would worship Him 
and be good. He would save us from demons. 
Lai-fu did not say much, but his ears were open. 
Slowly it came to him that all these years of wan- 
dering he had not been alone. Somewhere, not 
far ofi, an unknown One had been watching him. 
There came into his heart a great longing for that 
One and he took Him. That was all. Then the 
significance of his name came to him. His ** hap- 
piness had come.'* 



ARE the roads of this ancient empire broad 
and lined with aged, beautiful elms or 
maples? Are they macadamized like 
the ancient Roman roads in England ? Do they, 
like the great wall of China, run straight across 
plains and valleys, rivers and mountains, turning 
aside for no obstacle ? We might imagine them 
to be something like this. 

They do have some macadamized roads in cer- 
tain port cities that have been more largely in- 
fluenced by foreigners. Such streets are often 
flanked with young willows, planted so thickly 
that they become a continuous canopy over the 
street. But a tree that becomes as large as a 
New England elm is so wonderful that they build 
a fence around it and stick up a small shrine at 
its base. " Only a god could keep a tree alive 
through four dynasties." The roads do go up the 
mountainsides and across the rivers, — if they are 
shallow enough to ford. If not, the travellers are 
ferried across. 

But the roads are not straight. Fields, not 
roads, are the important thing in China. The lat- 
ter must bend to the former and be moulded by 



their edges. In Central China the land is laid 
out for irrigation purposes as rice is the main 
crop. These fields are rarely more than an acre 
or two in extent. Often they contain only a few- 
square rods. They are made irregular by the 
rolling land. The road follows their boundaries. 
Frequently it assumes the track of a giant rail 
fence, adding a third to the distance one is trav- 

Around the edge of the field the farmer digs a 
trench for the watercourse. The earth therefrom 
is thrown upon the road. It was only from five 
to ten feet wide to begin with. With this addi- 
tional dirt it assumes the shape of a miniature 
mountain and the traveller is following the ridge. 
Miniature precipices flank the sides down to the 
field several feet below. Rains break down the 
sides and the road in places is left a foot or two 
wide. Cross ditches cut through the road and a 
bridge of poles covered with brush and dirt is 
constructed. In time this begins to give way and 
a hole the size of an animal's leg stares up at the 
rider. Great bridges built in the dim past, for 
lack of care, have been torn to pieces by the 
floods and hand of time. If there is still a path- 
way, the road may pass over them. If not, it 
circles around them. The broken stones lie about 
obstructing the traffic. 

Along the great caravan routes is a never 
ending stream of humanity and other animals. 


A caravan of horses, mules and donkeys go 
steadily along, each bearing upon its sore back 
about three hundred pounds of merchandise. 
They will carry it thirty miles a day. A group 
of wheelbarrows with as heavy a load follow in 
their wake. Those brawny men will push those 
barrows twenty miles on a level in a day. 
When a difficult place in the road is met, the 
line stops and one by one the barrows are pulled 
over. Up a mountainside it will take five of 
them to put the barrow and its freight to the 
top. No barrow man travels alone. He would 
be stalled a dozen times a day. 

Men on horseback, official couriers, coolies, 
with burdens swinging from their carrying poles, 
footmen, sedan chairs, mule litters, animals 
going to market with long bags of grain laid 
across their bare backs, pass one on the road. 
Animals and men alike walk with their heads 
down. They watch for the holes and the pitfalls. 
Only the reckless ones go faster than a walk. 
No wagon could survive such a road. A stone 
bridge three feet wide may span a watercourse 
of ten feet. 

Of the main caravan routes the roads dwindle 
to mere paths, often mixed up in such confusion 
that one rarely knows, except from experience 
and perfect familiarity with the road, whether he 
is on his way to a city or just going towards 
some prosperous farm home. There have never 


been any surveys, just a blazing of the way. 
Traffic has sought the easiest way between 
market towns and the roads dodge as necessity 
demands. Sometimes an official, to gain favour 
with the people, will lay out a new road or 
repair an old bridge but it is forever after 
neglected and soon relapses into its former 
condition. It is entirely a private activity and 
the removal of the individual removes the possi- 
bility of permanency. 

Along the roads at intervals are littie villages 
and larger market towns. Here are barns in 
which man and beast may rest for the noontide 
or the night. Bams they are to the American 
traveller. The caravan drivers and the wheel- 
barrow men spread straw over a portion of the 
dirt floor, spread out their blankets and crawl in. 
For him who has more money there may be 
semi-privacy in a dark hole of a room in which 
is found a rude bed but the blankets and the 
straw are all the same. 

These villages and market towns have the 
same stamp of lack of plan as the roads. The 
town was probably started by a few who banded 
themselves for mutual protection and trade. 
They selected a spot probably with the help of 
a fortune-teller which bore the occult marks of 
being a lucky spot. They left a space through 
the middle of, perhaps, twenty feet in width for 
the main street. On either side they have built 


their houses, roof joining roof, until the cats can 
run upon the continuous roof line from one 
end of the place to the other. If the place hap- 
pens to require a cross street the line is 
broken and the roof lines form right angles with 
each other. At the ends of the streets they have 
erected a gateway which they close at night 
shutting out effectually any night prowlers. Up 
and down these streets the night watchman 
holds his vigil at irregular intervals, beating his 
gong, blowing his fog-horn or sounding his bam- 
boo rattles as the local custom may dictate. 

By mutual agreement the market towns have 
divided the time for their respective market days 
so that no two near-by places conflict. Two days 
in each ten are allotted to each place. This 
place has the first and sixth, the eleventh and 
sixteenth. The next place has the second and 
seventh, and the twelfth and seventeenth. So 
the series go. Merchants travel from one to 
another. Spreading their wares out on some 
empty space of ground, they are ready for cus- 
tomers. Approach one of these places on its 
market day and the winding paths reaching out 
to the four points of the compass are marked by 
living processions of men and women coming in 
from their country homes to barter and trade. 

The names of some of the towns are as edifying 
as those found in America and England. Here 
are a few translated into English. There are 


Ravens' Nest, Old Man's Barn, Continually at 
the Mountain Top, Great Willows, Canal Reser- 
voir, Red Heart, Sun Peacock, Bridge of the 
Djao Family and so on. Many are named after 
some family and become the Village of the Djou, 
Chen, Wang, Liu, Li or Djang Family as the 
case may be. In certain sections these latter 
villages will not let any one live in them that is 
not of that surname. As there are only between 
one and two hundred surnames in all of China it 
is not difificult to find sufficient of one name to 
make up a village. 

Most of these villages have back streets. 
Caravans can go through the place at times. 
But the rough cobble-boulder stone pavement is 
difBcult for the travel of animals. A market day 
completely fills it with humanity. Men work 
their dough, fit up their mud ovens and bake 
their doughnuts, rice cakes and noodles by the 
side of the street. The travelling merchants 
almost touch each other from the two sides of 
the narrow passage. Men and boys with 
various sweetmeats and eatables walk up and 
down in the crowd seeking purchasers. So the 
caravans take the back street and circle out be- 
yond the surging throng. That path at the 
back grew up just like any part of the main 
road. It was a case of necessity and much 
travel has made it a road. It, too, dodges the 
ponds, the irregular projecting rear ends of the 


successive houses and the edges of near-by 

" One day through a primitive wood 
A calf walked home as all good calves should ; 
But made a trail all bent askew, 
A crooked trail as all calves do. 
Since then two hundred years have fled, 
And I infer the calf is dead. 
But still he left behind his trail 
And thereby hangs a mortal tale. 
The trail was taken up next day 
By a lone dog that passed that way. 
And then a wise bell-wether sheep 
Pursued the trail o'er vale and steep, 
And drew the flock behind him, too, 
As good bell-wethers always do. 
And from that day o'er vale and glade, 
Through those old woods a path was made, 
And many men wound in and out, 
And dodged and turned and bent about. 
And uttered words of righteous wrath, 
Because 'twas such a crooked path; 
But still they followed — do not laugh — 
The first migration of that calf, 
And through this winding woodway stalked 
Because he wabbled when he walked. 
This forest path became a lane 
That bent and turned and turned again ; 
This crooked lane became a road. 
Where many a poor horse with his load. 
Toiled on beneath the burning sun. 
And travelled some three miles in one. 

Travelling on the road in sedan chairs with wheelbarrows as 
freight cars. 

Entrance to Chu Cheo city, showing rut of wheelbarrow in 
paving stones ; city gates, wall and moat ; and a wayside 


And thus a century and a half 
They trod the footsteps of that calf. 
The years passed on in swiftness fleet, 
The road became a village street, 
And this, before men were aware, 
A city's crowded thoroughfare. 
And soon the central street was this 
Of a renowned metropolis. 
And men two centuries and a half 
Trod in the footsteps of that calf; 
Each day a hundred thousand rout 
Followed the zigzag calf about ; 
And o'er his crooked journey went 
The traffic of a continent. 
A hundred thousand men were led 
By a calf near three centuries dead." 

This was written in derision of a certain 
American city, but it is an ideal description of 
Chinese roads and streets. Their roads have 
been dodging because a stone was there and no 
man took the trouble to remove it. They dodged 
again because the spot was a lucky one on which 
to build a signal mound. Then some fortune- 
teller decided that Li Hung Chang should find 
the luckiest spot for his private burial ground 
immediately across the great highway. And he 
paid the money to the local town heads and they 
ordered the road to dodge. Rains have come 
and washed out the main road. Then the cara- 
vans wandered off in the fields and found another 
path for the road and it stayed there. Rain has 


not come and the official has closed the city gate 
through which the main traffic goes and the sweat- 
ing weary wheelbarrow men have pushed their 
squeaking barrows around to another gate to 
appease an angry god. 

So have they built their homes and their tem- 
ples and their public buildings. Born of fear, 
filled with selfishness, seeking luck, as chance 
dictated or to appease some god or demon, they 
have constructed their lives, their possessions and 
all their hopes. No wonder the Chinese have 
so slowly awakened to the great task of regener- 
ation. To straighten out the tangles in which 
King Custom has for ages bound them is a task 
before which any nation might shrink. 



WE are starting for a ten days' trip 
through the market towns to the west 
and north of our station. The region 
through which we shall pass is a mountainous 
country whose cozy valleys are filled with com- 
fortable farm homes and terraced fields. The 
people are mostly uneducated, but thrifty and self- 
reliant. One hundred miles northwest of Chu 
Cheo is the Presbyterian station at Hwaiyuen, 
which we intend making the farthest point of our 
journey. There will be three men in our party, 
the missionary and two Chinese. Chen is an 
evangelist and Ding will have as his business the 
caring for the animals and baggage. We will 
use three animals, one horse and two donkeys. 
Chen will ride one donkey 'and the other will 
carry extra baggage. Ding will walk. We have 
long bedding bags which are laid across our sad- 
dles. These contain our blankets, extra clothes, 
toilet articles and money. The extra donkey has 
a hundred pounds of Gospels, calendars, and 
Christian booklets. 

Starting early we will strike a market day at 
Shi-gia-dzi, fifteen miles west, up in the heart of 



the low mountains. All the market towns have 
two market days in ten. Those of this place 
follow the numerals two and seven through the 
days of the month and we are starting on the 
seventeenth. So we get our baggage ready the 
night before and are up by daylight, getting the 
animals loaded and eating a light lunch. We 
give the last instructions to the medical assistant, 
the gardener and cow-man, say good-by to those 
who will abide in the home while we are absent, 
and follow our animals over the rough pavement 
out to the city gate where we mount and ride 

Early as we have begun our journey, the 
country people are just as early. We pass long 
lines of men, women and children bringing in 
loads of grain and fuel to the city. Out across 
the plain, over the ancient bridges and by the 
decaying temples, we wend our way. It is 
autumn and the morning air is delightful. Up 
over the mountain ridges we ride, stopping a few 
moments to look away into the distances or down 
on the farmsteads in the valleys beneath. A 
pheasant flies out of our path, a rabbit or a moun- 
tain deer bounds away into the recesses of the 
rocks. Oh, it is delightful up on the mountain 
tops where everything is clean and pure. 

Two-thirds of the distance to the first market 
town has been traversed when we begin over- 
taking those going the same way as we are. 


They are bound for the same destination and will 
make up part of the audience which will surround 
us all the time we remain in the place. As we 
come nearer to the place, from every side we see 
long lines of country people pouring into the 
already crowded street. We dismount, put our 
animals into Ding's care, load our arms with 
literature and make our way forward with the 
moving throng. We select some convenient 
grave or broken down wall on the outskirts of 
the crowd where we will not interfere with the 
market business and begin our work. 

By the time we have reached our position a 
dense crowd has surrounded us. We have rung 
no bell, have made no outcry to attract the people. 
Some one caught sight of the foreigner as we 
were approaching the place and passed on the 
word up the street, "foreign devil." Foreigners 
are rarely seen in those out-of-the-way places and 
natural curiosity brings the crowd to our stand. 

We begin at once to speak. No hymn is sung, 
no prayer publicly offered. When we dismounted 
from our animals a silent prayer went up from 
our hearts. Now we seek to win the crowd's good 
will and gain a hearing for the Gospel message. 
How do we preach to them ? We begin by tell- 
ing them that we have come ten thousand miles 
with a message which has universally brought 
joy to all who have received it. They are inter- 
ested. We ask if any one among them has found 


the goal of happiness for which they have been 
so intensely seeking. No one is willing to ac- 
knowledge that he has. We bring to their minds 
that all their worship is directed towards the 
power of darkness, the devil ; and there is not a 
dissenting voice. We remind them that the fear 
of death has a hold upon every heart among 

'< Heaven is a coffin's lid; earth is the coffin's pit. 
Go where one will he still is in the coffin fit," 

they say. 

Thus we open the way to speak of the One 
God who created the heavens and the earth, 
Him, who is our common ancestor. We tell of 
His great love for man which finally led Him to 
give His only Son to die upon the cross that, 
through His sacrifice we might be saved from 
sin for eternal life. 

In the midst of our discourse some little young- 
ster on the inner circle who has been eagerly 
watching every move of the foreigner and scan- 
ning his whole person, suddenly points a grimy 
finger and bursts out, ** He's got a ^^/^ tooth." 
Instantly the foreigner, who has been smiling at 
the crowd to win their good will, finds his mouth 
the target of the eyes of the entire inner circle 
and other grimy fingers are pointing out the in 
teresting tooth. It is useless to continue the 
preaching. Interest is now directed towards the 


foreign hat, clothes and shoes. Some one's fingers 
are fingering the pantaloons to see if the cloth is 
really wool or leather. 

It is a comparatively easy step to lead their 
attention from foreign clothes to the books and 
literature in hand. The price of a Gospel is 
mentioned and we hold it up to view. Instantly 
a circle of hands are outstretched and the mission- 
ary and evangelist can scarcely pass out the 
literature to supply the insistent demand. 

When the demand for literature subsides a little 
the evangelist takes the stand and farther unfolds 
the Story of Life. The personnel of the crowd 
constantly changes and we alternate preach- 
ing and selling the literature. Most of those 
who buy will be unable, themselves, to read the 
books they buy but every village has its scholar 
and in the evening the crowd will gather around 
him as he reads and comments upon the book. 

All forenoon long we hold our post (or grave) 
until hunger drives us to seek some food. Ding 
has taken the animals to an inn and they are 
munching contentedly upon their straw and bran. 
It will be difficult on a market day to obtain a 
regular meal. The cooks are too busy producing 
rice cakes, doughnuts and Chinese sandwiches 
for the crowds to bother preparing a regular 
dinner. Neither has the curiosity of the people 
been satisfied and they swarm about the foreigner 
wherever he goes. For us to enter an inn or 


restaurant would mean its being jammed full of 
people in short order. The proprietor could do 
no business. We hunt around until we find a 
cup of tea, some peanuts, rice cakes and other 
eatables. Then adjourning to some open place 
where the crowd can look to their heart's content, 
we eat our lunch. 

We take our leave of the people and push on 
to another place. In one day we may travel 
twenty-five miles and find a couple of markets in 
full sway. A theatrical or travelling circus may 
have drawn a crowd into another centre. Late 
in the evening, wearied with the day's work, we 
draw into our last town and seek an inn. 

Foreigners being considered rich, we are 
usually shown to a private room reserved for 
officials and wealthy travellers. But we would 
prefer the open room and a bundle of straw to 
the dungeon-like appearance and dirty bed of 
this inner room. The oil dips are lighted and 
distributed about the inn. The landlord and 
his wife are preparing the supper. Packs are 
being taken from the backs of the caravan ani- 
mals. The wheelbarrows are creaking into their 
place. The inn servants are cutting up the rice 
straw for the horses and donkeys. Caravan men 
are mending their saddles and feeding their ani- 
mals. We sit down on a bench, lean back 
against the mud wall and, in the light of the 
flickering lamps, watch the scene. 


The savour of the cooking food as it is wafted 
through the inn, is appetizing, more appetizing 
than the food itself. The landlord places eggs, 
pork, vegetables and the ever-present rice before 
us. It is impossible to describe the process of 
cooking or separate the various ingredients used 
in seasoning ; but we have learned to eat what is 
set before us and ask no questions, so we pro- 
duce our own chopsticks and draw up to the 
table. The landlord has plenty of chopsticks but 
they have been wiped so often by the greasy 
cloth and stuck into the waistband about his 
dirty outer garment that we prefer using our own. 

Two well-dressed men wander in while we are 
eating but politely sit off to the side and chat 
with others during the meal. ' When we are 
through they introduce themselves and enter 
into conversation. They have heard that we are 
considering the advisability of opening a preach- 
ing hall in their town. They are sure the people 
will be glad to have us do so and they have some 
property in a very desirable location for such an 
enterprise. We had wondered at their extreme 
politeness but it is now all clear. They are 
anxious to dispose of some property to the for- 
eigner,— at three prices. But we meet them 
with equal politeness, for while we are not in 
position to consider buying their land, we can 
sow a little seed by the wayside and perhaps 
some may fall into good ground. 


The younger of the two men is a Moham- 
medan. He can give no reason for being one 
save that his father was a believer before him 
and that his belief keeps him from eating pork. 
He, however, does not like to claim that it has 
made him any better a man than the old gentle- 
man who has accompanied him. 

The older man confesses that the road to 
heaven is hard to find, but, he continues, " The 
road leading downward is wonderfully easy to 
enter and most people are kept busy trying to 
get out again. The road up is so narrow and 
the gate is hard to open." He gave us our text. 
Far into the night we forget weariness of body 
and talk with them about Him who is " the Way 
of Life," whose ** yoke is easy " and " burden is 
light." Then we go to bed and forget the dirt 
floor, the animals munching away at their food, 
the rooster perched over our heads and all the 
other depressing surroundings. Oh, blessed 
sleep, that can banish trouble and weariness and 
gird the body and mind for another day of 
service ! 

One night we trailed into a village just behind 
a small caravan. Two young merchants had 
been to Nanking to lay in new merchandise for 
their up country store. They had hired a driver 
with his four animals to transport them and 
their freight over the one hundred and fifty 
miles of caravan road. A refugee boy had at- 


tached himself to the company. The driver was 
giving him his food for the aid he could render on 
the road. We watched him as he trudged after 
the animals. His coat was warm but his thin 
cotton trousers were torn and offered no protec- 
tion. Straw sandals were upon his feet. Provi- 
dence was drawing that boy and ourselves to- 
gether for very definite purposes. 

It was the first day of December but the day 
had been balmy and pleasant. In the night the 
weather changed and cold rain began to fall. By 
morning it had turned to sleet and snow. 
Wrapped in our blankets we suffered from the 
cold. The road men had spread straw on the 
floor and lain up close to each other. In the 
middle of the night they built a fire in the 
middle of the dirt floor and gathered around it 
until the morning dawned. The roads became 
a bog and the wind blew sleet that cut through 
any one who was bold enough to venture out 
doors. We stayed in the inn until the following 
day when the weather moderated and the sun 
shone once more. There in that inn Lai-fu, the 
refugee boy, came to us and has been with us 
ever since, now a faithful Christian servant. His 
story is told in another chapter. 

As we journey from town to town how often do 
the appeals from the sick come. We take along 
in our travelling outfit a few simple remedies, a 
pair of tooth forceps, a lance and some scissors 


with bandages. Many simple troubles can be 
thus treated while we are on the road but the 
majority of the sick people laid at our feet must 
be told to come to our hospital at the station. 
One dose of medicine will not affect a cure. We 
wish for the power of One who by the touch of 
His hand gave sight to the blind, strength to the 
palsied limb and health to the fevered body. 

Standing by the side of a sick man's bed we 
tell them of the Saviour who not only healed the 
body but saved the souls of men. They listen 
and long again for the presence of Him. The 
story of the Great Healer is an attractive one to 
this sick world. Under the shade of a friendly 
tree they gather about us. They are all sick, 
sick in body and sick in soul. China in herself 
has no Physician. 

So pass the ten days we have taken from our 
station work. We preach on temple steps, in 
inns, at private homes, to groups by the wayside, 
to fellow travellers and at the market towns. We 
reach the station of our fellow missionaries and 
rest a day before returning. It is sweet to talk 
with a coworker in the English tongue once 
more. They are glad to see us. Very few for- 
eigners' faces do they see during the main part 
of the year. 

We turn our faces homeward. After living in 
Chinese inns and being the daily target of thou- 
sands of curious Chinese eyes, home and all it 


means looms up large. Even though it be planted 
in the midst of heathenism, there is no place like 
home. We do not tarry much by the way. One 
hundred miles will take at least three days. We 
push on during the daytime, preaching to the 
people where we take our dinners and in the inns 
where we rest at night. Upon the last crest of 
the low mountains, we look across the plains and 
see the three pagodas which mark the city of 
Chu Cheo. They never looked so attractive. 
But it is only when one has taken the journey 
and now entering his own gateway, catches up 
the little ones and places them upon the saddle 
and thus leading his horse, walks up to his own 
door-steps ; it is only then that one can appreci- 
ate to the full measure the Christian mission 



WE sometimes use the word " born " with 
the meaning of natural or ingrained. 
We speak of a man being a born 
leader, a born mechanic. The Chinese evangeUst 
must be made ; he is not born. He has no Chris- 
tian ancestry back of him from whom he may in- 
herit the essential qualities to fill such an office. 
But he is the most needed man in the new Church 
in China. The missionary studies every new 
convert long and prayerfully to see whether he 
may possibly qualify for this important office. 
He knows that if China is to be evangelized it 
must be done by the Chinese themselves. The 
training of the proper men for this service is, 
therefore, one of the most important duties of the 

The Christians meet together in the Sunday- 
school, the prayer-meeting and the Christian 
Endeavour Society. They frequently go out in 
little bands and speak on the streets, in the chap- 
els, at private homes. They invite neighbours 
to their homes at the time of evening or morning 
worship. The missionary is watching their daily 
conduct. He studies them when they are as- 



sailed by special temptations and trials. He 
knows that an ability to speak is far from being 
the chief qualification needed in the true evan- 
gelist. Sometimes he places a possible candidate 
in a position where he can obtain a closer knowl- 
edge of the man's character. He is taken into 
the compound as a servant or put as keeper of a 
street chapel. Many aspire to the position who 
are wholly unfitted for such service. They must 
be turned back and gently led into some other 
channel of usefulness. 

Colportage work is often the second step in the 
training of evangelists. The Bible societies are 
constantly seeking reliable men whom the mis- 
sionary can recommend and supervise. These 
societies bear all the expense of the colporters 
and pay them a reasonable salary. The mission- 
ary outlines the routes over which the colporter 
will travel, acts as his adviser and sends his re- 
ports to the Bible society. It is no easy task to 
be a colporter. A copy of one of the Gospels is 
sold for about one-half cent American money, yet 
the average colporter will be unable to sell more 
than a couple of hundred in a month. The Chinese 
despise one of their nationality who will become 
a Christian. They taunt him with following the 
foreigner and '* eating the foreign doctrine." He 
must be a skillful handler of men, indeed, who 
excells in the selling of Scriptures to the Chinese. 
These men must carry their stock-in-trade from 


place to place upon their own shoulders. They 
travel in summer heat and winter cold. Petty 
persecution and strong temptation assail them. 
He who successfully accomplishes a year of 
labour as a colporter, can be counted as having 
passed the second step which leads to the office 
of an evangelist. 

The next step in his promotion is the placing 
of him in a street chapel not far from the home 
of the missionary. His mornings must now be 
given to study and his afternoons to preaching. 
He follows a carefully-outlined course of Bible- 
study. When the missionary travels out through 
the country he finds no one better fitted to ac- 
company him on such itineraries than a man 
who has been all over the ground as a colporter. 
Such a helper can lead him to homes and villages 
that have shown themselves favourable to the 
Gospel. The missionary more closely scrutinizes 
the man's preaching and conduct. Little faults 
can be corrected and good points encouraged. 
Close bonds of fellowship and sympathy become 
established between the foreigner and the Chi- 
nese helper. 

The final instruction given in this college of 
evangelism is the gathering, year by year, of the 
helpers into a general Bible institute. At some 
convenient time in the year they come together 
from all the stations into some central point and 
there for a few weeks do actual class work and 



W ^ 

W' ' ^ ' 



^41^ .<K^^^. 


^■r ■' k .^ 



take notes on lectures. The various missionaries 
have in charge their respective departments of 
Bible geography, Bible history, church history, 
hermeneutics, homiletics, etc. Each speaker 
gives a course of a week's lectures in his depart- 
ment and makes way for the next course. The 
Chinese prepare outlines of sermons and have 
them criticised. Mission difficulties and mission 
polity are discussed with them and among them. 
They are taught the principles of leadership. 

By means of such training have many of the 
most trusted evangelists in China been fitted for 
the positions of trust they are holding. They have 
been taken from all walks of life. In our own circle 
of workers, Wu Li-Kwan was a boatman, Shi 
Gwei-Biao was a story-teller, Chen Li-Seng was a 
teacher, Koh was a photographer and Wang 
Yung-Seng was his assistant. It has taken long 
years to train some of them. Others showed 
promise from the first of being fitted for the serv- 
ice. When they have proven themselves worthy 
and capable of bearing responsibilities of service, 
they are sent out to the villages where they open 
chapels, build up local churches and work in con- 
junction with the missionary to evangelize the 
surrounding regions. 

To all of them come temptations and petty 
persecutions. They are reviled and hated by 
their countrymen who sneeringly speak of them 
as ** eating the foreign doctrine," since they are 


under the pay of the missionary society. One 
day Mr. Shi, the story-teller, was preaching from 
the text, ** Whosoever smiteth thee on the right 
cheek, turn to him the other also." A man 
stepped up to him from the audience and hit him 
on the side of the face. Shi's face reddened and 
the hot blood went tingling to his finger-tips. 
He started towards the man, stopped, then turned 
the other side of his face to the stranger, and said, 
** Hit the other side, friend." There was no 
quarrel that day. 

Once he was called before a very anti-foreign 
official as a witness. The official sneeringly asked 
him if he had accepted the doctrine of the ** for- 
eign devils." He confessed that he had. 

" Perhaps you would like to preach to us," 
jeered the official. 

** If I should say what I know of the doctrine, 
your excellency would say that you knew more. 
It is, however, in your power to hear it, should 
you so command," was the steady reply. 

When the missionary sends out one of these 
trained men to open and build up an outstation, 
it becomes a mark of the missionary's deepest 
faith in him. Strong temptations will assail the 
evangelist. Money will be offered him if he will 
traffic in the good name of the Church. Foreign 
influence in China is strong. Officials fear and 
tremble before it. In all the riots and rebellions 
which the Chinese have led against foreigners 


they have invariably been overcome by superior 
forces and indemnities extracted from them for 
the property they have destroyed. A dread of 
becoming mixed up in any business in which the 
foreigners are concerned has grown upon the 
officials. When legal cases have been brought 
before them and any suggestion has been dropped 
that the litigants might be connected with the 
foreigners, the officials have either rendered un- 
just decisions or refused to act in the case. 

The common people have readily discovered 
this weakness in their rulers and have conse- 
quently sought alliance with foreigners. Protes- 
tant missionaries have in most cases refused to 
meddle in legal affairs, except in cases of extreme 
persecution, and the lawless characters among 
the people have turned to the native evangelists 
and sought to entangle them. In the past few 
years thousands of Chinese have sought member- 
ship with the Christians for no other reason than 
to compel the officials to decide their long stand- 
ing law cases in their favour. 

Thus it has fallen upon the Chinese evangelist 
to not only withstand direct temptation to him- 
self, but also to sift the mass of inquirers who 
have been gathering about the work. He who is 
a Chinese himself is usually better qualified to 
separate the real inquirer from the false than is 
the missionary who at best is an alien in their 
country. Hence it follows that the missionary 


should be in close fellowship with his evangelists. 
He must have their confidence and give them 
his. Over and over they prove themselves worthy 
of all the trust imposed in them. The persecu- 
tions borne and the temptations resisted bring 
them into a fellowship in the sufferings of Jesus 
Christ and an experimental knowledge of the 
power of the Holy Spirit which make them worthy 
coworkers, indeed, with the most consecrated of 
missionaries. One time a missionary was travel- 
ling with the Mr. Shi mentioned above. Evening 
had brought them to an inn so crowded full of 
caravan animals and packs that the only resting 
place for them that night was in the open court 
within the quadrangle formed by the stables. 
They spread some straw upon the rough stones 
covering the court, knelt together in their evening 
prayer and rolled themselves up in their blankets. 

As they lay looking up at the stars the mis- 
sionary suddenly asked, " Shi, is Jesus Christ real 
to you ? " 

" Real to me ? He is more real to me than 
you are." 

" Why, how can that be ? I am right here by 
you. You can see me, feel me, hear me. Can 
the Master be more real than that?" 

** Older brother, you sometimes misunderstand 
me and sometimes I misunderstand you ; but 
Christ never misunderstands me. He is real to 
me, very real." 


Some of these men have fallen. Standing 
alone in the midst of new and unexpected 
temptations it is no wonder that some of them 
were overwhelmed. They have risen again, 
profited by the fall. As the work has grown the 
band of evangelists has grown with it. They 
have entered into fellowship with one another 
and counselled together how to meet the difficult 
conditions. Gradually their Christian charac- 
ters are winning the confidence of the people 
until some have not only become sturdy living 
epistles of the Word but have gained a com- 
manding moral influence among the people of 
the district in which their lives have been cast. 
Such lives become prophetic of the days com- 
ing when China shall be evangelized by her own 



A RICH Chinese is usually a liberal Chi- 
nese. He gives to the beggar on the 
street, even though it cements the beg- 
gar to his profession. He serves rich feasts to 
his friends and guests. It is by reason of his 
liberality that a great many temples and schools 
are built. He, for merit's sake, will build and 
equip ferries across the rivers ; and, for the good 
will of the people, will construct bridges and 
mend roads. 

To make a fine display at a wedding or a 
funeral all Chinese will spend their last cash and 
all they may be able to borrow from their 
friends. A community will build a temple in 
their midst and establish a priest within its 
sanctuaries. It is a popular error among them 
that money spent for others accumulates merit, 
and merit accumulated, makes entrance into 
heaven more sure. In all their religious and 
philanthropic gifts fear of the devil and hope of 
heaven play a prominent part. By the free use 
of money they gain social and legal privileges in 
their courts ; why should not a like expenditure 



gain for them certain advantages in the life to 

Yet in spite of their belief in the power of 
money to obtain privileges in this life and the 
life to come, the priests in the temples, built by 
the people, frequently find it difficult to drag 
their living out of their unwilling supporters. 
Temples on every side are falling into decay. 
Perhaps the propaganda of missionaries has 
made the people doubt the power of the idols 
and hence has lessened their interest in the 
temples. Certain it is, that it often takes the 
alluring festivities of an idol procession or 
similar attraction to draw the people together in 
worship and obtain money from them for the re- 
pair of some neglected temple. Other means of 
support for the temples have been sought for. 
Some have been endowed. Mountain lands have 
been deeded to others and the priests have 
allowed the timber to grow or constructed lime- 
kilns as a source of revenue. Such properties 
are non-taxable the same as property held for 
religious purposes in America. 

Is it strange then, that men, when taught the 
power of Christ to overcome evil and the accept- 
ance of Him as a sure means to the obtaining 
of an entrance into heaven, should see in the 
Christian faith not only a means of eternal 
salvation but also a release from financial 
obligations? A great army in the ranks of 


American Christians have seemed to so regard 
Christianity. Some have even taken pride in 
the fact that their religion had cost them almost 
nothing. It takes time and patience and ex- 
ample to inoculate the Christian newly born out 
of heathenism, with the possibilities of joy to be 
found in the practice of ** this grace also." 

In the earlier days of the Foreign Christian 
Mission work in China, some of the missionaries 
told the few Chinese Christians assembled in 
conference that for every dollar the Chinese 
would raise they would give ten dollars. The 
Chinese had been very, very slow in opening up 
their purses to the spread of the Gospel. They 
were from the ranks of the poorer classes and 
very little money passed through their hands 
during the course of a year. One or two of 
them, however, were impressed with the import 
of the offer. For them to raise ten dollars would 
mean a gift of one hundred dollars from the mis- 
sionaries. Thirty dollars would call for three 
hundred dollars. In a little informal committee 
meeting held at the end of the conference, they 
laid their plans and went to work. At the next 
conference they laid thirty dollars as their offer- 
ing on the table and asked the missionaries to 
put three hundred dollars by its side. That 
offering was the beginning of tithing for some of 
the Chinese. 

Every year each station now brings in its offer- 


ings for the general fund thus started. Its 
amount is several times the first offering. When 
comparing the respective liberality of American 
and Chinese Christians we must remember the 
buying value of a dollar in the two countries and 
also the amount of the daily wage paid to work- 
men. The Chinese are at present giving an 
average of twenty cents per member for this their 
"foreign mission" offering, or the value of two 
days' wages. Outside of the money given for 
local work, American Christians do not yet give 
an average of one day's wages towards the spread 
of the Gospel. 

With the fund thus started by the Chinese in 
the foreign Christian mission, they have erected 
a fine street chapel near the busy river landing 
in Nanking. They have mortgaged buildings in 
interior points for the opening of other centres. 
For one year they paid the salary of an evangel- 
ist who was sent to aid in the opening of a new 
station in the northern part of Anhwui Province. 

The evangelists in the Chu Cheo district have 
nearly all gained the right to be enrolled in the 
ranks of tithe givers. One-twentieth of their in- 
comes goes directly to evangelistic work in the 
district. For four years they have supported one 
of their number as an extra evangelist. He 
works under their committee, makes a tour of 
the outstations and ministers in the homes of the 


** The poor ye have always with you." The 
northern famines have driven many southward to 
the granaries of Nanking and Chinkiang. These 
poor refugees did not always reach their destina- 
tion. Sick and starving they have fallen by the 
wayside, in most cases to die uncared for. Some 
have fallen into the hands of the Christians. 
Clothes have been put upon their backs. Little 
huts have been built for them. They have been 
assisted in starting once more on the road to self- 
support. They can sell peanuts, doughnuts, or 
sweetmeats on the streets or cut fuel on the hills 
and find ready sale for it in the towns. Some of 
our most honoured Christians have thus been 
saved and won. 

Tang, a small farmer, died suddenly. He did 
not know the danger of eating tainted meat but 
it cost him his life. His little girl died at the 
same time. There was no money in the home. 
His wife and baby were helpless. The Christians 
bought a respectable coffin and paid the funeral 
expenses. They aided his wife in renting the 
little piece of property and placed her in a posi- 
tion to help herself. 

Suen, another farmer, died one summer of 
dysentery. His wife was sick with consumption. 
The Christians buried him and raised a sufBcient 
sum to send his wife back to her parents' home 
where she could be cared for. Djao was an 
educated man whom famine had driven from his 


northern home. He was helped back from beg- 
gary and became a Christian. The Christians 
raised a sum sufficient to keep him and sohcited 
scholars that he might open a school in their 
village. He is now one of our strong evangel- 

The general Chinese convention meets annually 
at the various stations. In order that as many 
may attend as possible, the local Christians take 
pride and joy in entertaining all who will come 
free of cost. Buildings are emptied and rooms 
turned into one great bed. The floor is covered 
with straw and the men spread their blankets 
upon it and sleep much as was done in the 
pioneer meetings held by our fathers in America. 
The women are lodged in other quarters in like 
manner. The cooking is done at one large oven 
or stove and tables spread in one enclosure. As 
many as one hundred and forty have been thus 
entertained at an annual Chinese convention. A 
committee has charge of the food supply and one 
or two are detailed to do the cooking. None of 
the preparations are elaborate except in quantity. 
A hog, sheep, numbers of chickens and a quantity 
of fish are laid in stock for the campaign. The 
inspiration generated in such gatherings is un- 
surpassed in any land. 

By little gifts the Chinese Christians express 
their love towards the missionaries. On Christ- 
mas day gifts come to as well as go out from the 


missionary. The Chinese remember the birth- 
days of the little children in the mission home. 
The gifts consist of brilliant garments for the 
babies, beautifully embroidered shoes for the 
women, sweet potatoes and sweetmeats for the 
table, goats for meat, porcelain, etc. 

When F. M. Rains, secretary of the Foreign 
Christian Missionary Society, visited the field, in 
Chu Cheo he was met at the city gate by the Chris- 
tians with a string of ten thousand firecrackers 
wound on a bamboo pole. They fired the crack- 
ers as they marched ahead of his chair, up the 
street, to the church which they had gaily deco- 
rated for the occasion. In other instances the 
foreign visitors are presented with scrolls on silk 
and given elaborate feasts. Missionaries, leaving 
on furlough, are escorted on their way in a chair 
and sometimes the Christians will show their 
deep affection by carrying the chair themselves. 

There are other ways in which the Chinese 
show their growing liberality. In the ministry 
of giving to their fellow countrymen they shine 
most brightly and contrast most strongly with 
the usual heathen selfish indifference. Some of 
the Christians out walking on Christmas day, 
found the naked body of a little girl babe thrown 
out behind a temple and freezing to death. 
They wrapped it in their own coats and tenderly 
brought it to the hospital where they spent a day 
trying to hold life in the body. They did not 


succeed in their purpose but the act revealed 
their passion for ministry. 

A ten-year-old boy was found begging by the 
wayside. The toes of one foot had been frozen 
ofi. They picked him up and brought him to 
the hospital. His body was covered with sores 
and vermin. He was cleaned up and put into 
better clothes. One day we found him in the 
room with our ignorant gateman. They were 
talking over something between them. A little 
later we heard him, as he sat out on the walk, 
slowly repeating, '* Our — Father — who — art — in 
— heaven." The ignorant gateman had been 
telling him what he could about Christ and had 
taught him the Lord's prayer. 

It may not be that the Chinese are giving 
large sums into the coffers of the Church. They 
are not giving as much as they should give. 
They do not yet understand how larger gifts can 
open the storehouses of God so that by giving 
they shall be increased in basket and store and 
receive large spiritual blessings. But, year by 
year, as the missionary watches the course of 
their liberality increase and their love of ministry 
grow large, he sees evidences of a future liber- 
ality in the Chinese Church which may put to 
shame those in more civilized lands. 



** "T^ EFORE we had Kuling," said a mission- 
l"*^ ary from Hankow, **some one fell in 
M^J our ranks every year. Each spring we 
would find ourselves saying under our breaths, 
* Who will be the one to fall this year ? ' It was 
a nightmare to us. Kuling has been a life- 
saving station." That is the experience and 
history throughout the Yangtse valley. Since 
the Church has decided that what she wants on 
the mission field is living workers and not mar- 
tyrs' graves, missionaries on all mission fields 
have been establishing sanitariums in favourable 
places. Many have thus been saved from being 
sent home on sick leave and scores of lives have 
been spared for long service on the field. 

Until about 1895 missionaries in the Yangtse 
valley were obliged to remain at their stations 
throughout the heat of the summer. Mothers 
fanned their children to sleep. Extra servants 
were hired to pull the great fans which were 
swung over the tables and the beds. Sick peo- 
ple were sent to Japan or returned to the home 
Jand. Too many graves were being dug in 



Some missionaries who had secured the privi- 
lege of building stone cottages on the slopes of 
the Kuling mountains, conceived the plan of ob- 
taining possession of one of the valleys in the 
tops of the mountains and opening it for all who 
might wish to come. Like every other innova- 
tion introduced by the foreigners, the Chinese 
looked upon the procedure with suspicion and 
it took long, patient, persistent action before the 
valley was thrown open to occupation by for- 

Kuling is up the Yangtse River about four 
hundred and fifty miles from Shanghai. This 
river is the great highway over which all pass in 
reaching this ** valley on the mountain top." 
The river steamer is left at Kiukiang, the porce- 
lain market of China. A rest-house with con- 
veniences for sleeping and the preparing of 
simple meals has been established in this city by 
the Kuling management. Each family is ac- 
companied by their servants, carry their own 
bedding and provide their own food. Chair- 
bearers with light open chairs wait to transport 
passengers across the ten miles of plain and five 
miles of mountain climb. Other carriers fasten 
the baggage to their carrying poles and follow 
the chair- bearers. The furniture, bedding, provi- 
sions, building timber, iron roofing, drugs, crock- 
ery and pictures for a thousand men, women, and 
children have been carried acrsi«* ^i^e plain ai^d 


up the mountainside on the shoulders of coolies. 
Pianos and organs have been transported up the 
mountain. Whole houses have been purchased 
in Shanghai and, in like manner, transported 
from the river steamer to the top of the mountain. 
When it is understood that up the mountain 
climb there are four long flights of steep stone 
stairways, one gains a faint conception of the 
task. Given enough Chinese workmen almost 
any burden can be moved. The men who do 
this transporting of baggage and freight receive 
high wages for Chinese. Being largely moun- 
tain men they are used to climbing. 

Two miles away from the entrance to the 
Kuling valley one catches his first glimpse of 
the Chinese village which lies just at the " Gap." 
After passing the Gap, the valley, with its slopes 
thickly studded with the stone cottages, bursts 
upon the traveller's view. The valley is nearly 
two miles long and contains nearly two hundred 

An annually elected council hold rule over the 
valley. A paid manager remains the year round 
upon the estate, as the valley is technically called. 
This manager oversees workmen as they build 
new cottages and repair the older ones ; he 
guides the labourers in repairing the roads and 
maintains a company of patrolmen who watch 
over the property. In the summer when the 
residents are coming up the mountain, he has 


charge of the great army who carry the sedan 
chairs and transport the baggage. In filling this 
difficult office, many foreigners have come and 
gone, but none have succeeded better than John 
Berkin, of England, who fills the office at the 
present time (1907). 

The Kuling estate is granted to the foreigners 
by the Chinese government upon a nine-hun- 
dred-and-ninety-nine-year lease. The council 
give a deed to each lot-holder and this entitles 
him to a vote upon all questions arising in the 
community. No Chinese can buy or live within 
the precincts of the estate except as a servant to 
a foreigner. Contractors (Chinese) have shops 
at the Gap and stand ready to build or repair 
houses. Stone is the universal building material. 
Cottages are usually one story and cost from 
five hundred to as many thousands of dol- 

From almost any point in the valley beautiful 
scenery bursts upon one's view. Every resident 
believes his home to be situated in the most de- 
lightful spot in the valley. The clouds roll up 
the mountainside and into the cottage doors. 
The sunsets are beautiful beyond description. 
From some points lower ranges of mountains 
and the distant Yangtse can be plainly seen. 
Mountain springs pour out their pure waters. A 
stream winds down the valley becoming a never- 
failing joy to the paddling children. Swimming 


pools, tennis courts, pleasant walks, and shady- 
nooks have been spread along the valley. 

A union church opens its doors to all denomi- 
nations and all nationalities. Leading mission- 
aries from all societies fill the pulpit. Through- 
out the summer a Sunday-school gathers the 
children together. Lovers of music band to- 
gether and furnish a sacred concert at the end of 
each season. Loyal Americans celebrate the 
Fourth of July, and a day of sports for the chil- 
dren is an annual occurrence. Medical, evangel- 
istic and educational conferences broaden the 
minds and hearts of the resting missionaries. 
Probably no theme receives the universal atten- 
tion that is given to Christian union. 

Young missionaries find the valley a retreat to 
which they may come and continue uninter- 
rupted their study of the language. The spe- 
cially prepared invalid chairs bring up their loads 
of men and women who have been prostrated by 
uncongenial climate and worn nerves. Up in 
the pure mountain air a new lease of life and 
strength is granted them. There is a cemetery 
at the lower end of the valley but the graves are 

Some years ago one of the China Inland mis- 
sionaries presented his mission with some fine 
school buildings which he had erected on the 
estate. This mission, not being prepared to 
open the school at once for their own children, 


have leased the buildings to a corporation of 
missionaries and business men. These have es- 
tablished a school for the children of mission- 
aries and foreigners in China. Plans are now 
being laid for the establishment of a larger and 
permanent school at the place for the same pur- 
pose. Since the greatest problem before the 
average missionary is the education of his chil- 
dren, the new school will become a blessing to 
the missionary body in China. Without such 
privileges missionaries must teach their own chil- 
dren until they reach the period for entering high 
school and college at which time the home must 
be broken up and the children brought to the 
home land for the final steps in their education. 

Down on the plains at the stations, the little 
ones growing up in the mission homes must be 
guarded both physically and morally from con- 
tagion and contamination. A missionary mother 
was one day telling her children the story of 
Hagar and Ishmael. She told them how the 
two were driven out into the wilderness where 
they could find no water. Hagar left Ishmael 
under a bush and went away for she could not 
bear to see him die. Then God showed her a 
spring of water and saved their lives. The mis- 
sionary children listened to their mother with 
eager interest but did not show great enthusiasm 
over the climax of the narrative. After a 
moment of silence one of the boys doubtfully 


asked his mother, " Mother, was the water in 
that spring boiled ? " They had never tasted un- 
boiled water. The Chinese soil is so porous and 
the Chinese are so unsanitary in their habits that 
the missionaries have learned by bitter experience 
to always boil water before using it for drinking 

The missionary takes his family to this moun- 
tain top for the summer and, with his heart at 
rest, returns to his work in the valley. In his im- 
agination he sees his little ones playing in the 
mountain stream, floating their boats and build- 
ing their miniature pebble walls. He knows his 
wife is growing rested and strong. If any ac- 
cident occurs or sickness should befall them, he 
knows there are physicians in Kuling who will 
gladly minister to them. While he is sweltering 
in the heat of the plains below, he knows they 
are sleeping under blankets every night. With 
the anxiety for his loved ones taken off his 
mind, he can rest in spite of the heat and 
quietly do the work needed at the station. 

Three thousand Chinese live in the village 
at the Gap and minister to the foreign com- 
munity. Carpenters, blacksmiths, masons, shoe- 
makers, tailors, photographers, tinsmiths, gar- 
deners, milkmen, and storekeepers flock up the 
mountainside each summer and build or repair 
their own rough summer homes. They will 
sell flower bulbs, assist in carrying lunch baskets 


on a picnic excursion, level a tennis court, 
paint an iron roof or build a house as the case 
may be. 

The missionaries do not forget their mission 
and message to the Chinese. The welfare of 
these "ministering servants" is upon the hearts 
of the community. The drainage and sanitation 
of the Chinese village is watched as closely as the 
valley itself. A dispensary is maintained by 
voluntary contributions from the foreigners for 
the Chinese. Sickness at the mountain top is not 
so common even among the Chinese, but in the 
blasting of rock accidents will happen. In the 
constant going back and forth from the plain be- 
low, disease at times creeps up the mountainside. 
Physicians take turns at the dispensary in attend- 
ing to the sick or injured Chinese. 

In connection with the dispensary is a street 
chapel in which the evangelists hold nightly 
services. Lantern slides are shown with effect 
and much religious literature is sold. On Sun- 
day afternoon the union church building is 
thrown open to the Chinese. This is more for 
the servants who are directly connected with the 
missionary homes, many of whom are Christians. 
The best Chinese speakers among the mission- 
aries fill the pulpit at these services. On Thurs- 
day afternoons a service for the Chinese women 
is held by the missionary women. 

The season passes and the missionary takes 


his family back to the resident station. They 
have renewed their strength. The children for 
a time have had the privilege of mingling with 
other children of their own race and tongue. 
They have attended a Sunday-school and church 
services in which men and women of their own 
kind met together and praised God in the Eng- 
lish tongue. Broader visions and greater possi- 
bilities in the mission service have come to the 
father and mother. They have lost the feeling 
of loneliness and isolation. In body, mind and 
soul they have been refreshed. God bless Ruling. 



WHAT is it that leads men and women 
to commit themselves to the mission 
field for a life service? More than al- 
most any other class of people they are held up 
as heroes and their life of sacrificing service is 
constantly pointed out to the Church and the 
world. Secretaries of foreign mission societies 
speak of the sacrifice ; friends of missionaries call 
attention to it ; but it is rare that a missionary 
himself will be heard characterizing the mission- 
ary service as a heroic or self-sacrificing task. 
That there are hardships, he never denies, but he 
believes that the one who would pity him for the 
so-called sacrifices he may be making, has not 
yet caught the spirit of the missionary enterprise. 
Upon a like basis one might be led to pity our 
great Master, for was He not, too, a foreign mis- 
sionary ? Did not He empty Himself, " taking 
the form of a servant, being made in the image 
of man"? " He humbled Himself, becoming 
obedient unto death, yea, even the death of the 
cross." Now we can say with reverence that it 
did not seem to impress Him as a great sacrifice, 
for over in Hebrews we are told that He endured 



the cross and despised the shame ** for the joy 
that was set before Him." 

For the joy that was set before them His dis- 
ciples left their nets and shops and schools and 
went out to endure hardships in labours, perils 
by sea and land, imprisonments and stripes, cold 
and hunger, nakedness and the sword,-^r the 
joy that zvas set before them. They might have 
taken up other lines of business, but the passion for 
saving men, even at the expense of losing for 
themselves the temporary comforts so highly 
prized by other men, sent them out and kept 
them out to the end. 

For the joy that was set before him, Carey was 
constrained to lead the modern missionary enter- 
prise ; for the joy that was set before him, Mor- 
rison buried himself in a Canton cellar and began 
the work of breaking down the walls of China's 
exclusiveness ; for the joy that was set before 
them, Judson went to Burmah, MofEatt and Liv- 
ingstone to Africa, Paton to the New Hebrides, 
Miss Agnew and Miss Reed to women of India ; 
and a great host of others have ** left all and fol- 
lowed Him," — to the mission field. 

Missionaries, still living, have left their children 
in other loving hands and gone back to the fever- 
stricken jungles of Africa and there, upon sick- 
beds, still taught their dark brothers and sisters 
the way to heaven. Men have brought their 
families to the home land, that the children might 


not be denied the privilege of education, and 
gone back alone to carry on the work. 

Breaking down in health, missionaries have 
returned to Christian lands to repair the depleted 
strength or pass through grave surgical opera- 
tions only to return at the earliest moment to the 
land where they had been pouring out their life- 
strength and there once more take up the burden. 
One family who endured great perils and hard- 
ships and suffered much physical pain at the 
hand of the Boxers who were ** drunk with the 
blood of the martyrs," were sent to Europe and 
ministered to by loving friends until their health 
was regained. Then they went straight back to 
the scene of their tortures and began the task 

Two doctors in central China came back to 
America when they saw their wives failing iu 
health. They brought the best medical skill to 
fight the uneven battle with death, — and death 
won. They laid their loved ones in their graves, 
put their children into schools under the care of 
friends and straightway returned to their hos- 
pitals and empty homes in China. One mother 
returned to the home land three times and then 
retried the climate of China hoping to become 
acclimatized so that she and her husband might 
spend their lives lifting up China. Their great- 
est hardship was endured and the greatest sacri- 
fice made when they gave up the unequal strug- 


gle and abandoned the thought of foreign mis- 
sions as their life-work. 

Apparently to live and die upon the mission 
field in the midst of the fires they have succeeded 
in kindling, is the height of satisfaction to such 
men and women. Neither is this ambition con- 
fined merely to those who, while still largely ig- 
norant of the conditions in heathen lands, offered 
themselves for the service. Others who have 
gone abroad to visit their friends in mission lands 
have been so fascinated by the opportunities 
offered in mission service that they have re- 
turned to their homes, made necessary arrange- 
ments, and offered themselves to their boards. 
Business men and women, travelling around the 
world for pleasure or other purpose have been 
seized with the same impulse and while they 
could not give themselves to direct missionary 
service, have gladly given of their means. 

It is not blind fanaticism which thus attracts 
and holds one to the foreign mission field. Con- 
tact with actual heathenism robs visionary and 
misguided zeal of its halo and places the mis- 
sionary face to face with hard facts. If he 
stays at the task it is because something besides 
fanaticism holds him there. There is a joy in the 
mission service, joy so great that other passions 
have little influence. 

The rank and file of the Christian Church 
in the home lands do not seem able to com- 


prehend the possibilities of obtaining joy in 
such an undertaking as the conversion of the 
heathen world. Perhaps one must have fellow- 
ship in the sufferings of Christ before he can fully 
appreciate fellowship in His joy. To the mis- 
sionary there is no greater work than treading 
in the footsteps of Christ and His disciples in 
fields where the need is great and the labourers 
few. To be planted in the midst of a people 
whose bodies, minds and souls are crying out for 
the *' Glad Tidings " you have to offer ; and to 
be the only ones in that field who can give it to 
them, — that is opportunity, and that is joy. 

The missionary has not been in the field long 
before he is borne down with the appalling fam- 
ine which is desolating heathen hearts. They 
are starving and dying for want of love and 
hope. Each separate man and woman among 
them seems so intensely seeking some way out 
of the awful tangle, called life, that he has be- 
come callous to the sufferings of all others. 
Every man is fighting to save himself. It mat- 
ters not if salvation is obtained by climbing over 
the prostrate forms of fellow men. Doubt, fear 
of demons and the consciousness of sin possess 
them all. They are lost and know not the way 
home. " They are as sheep without a shepherd." 
They die like wild beasts beside the roadway 
and on the street corners. They are alone in their 
misery with no one to pity, to comfort, to help. 


They laugh and joke ; they feast and listen to 
the story-tellers ; they buy and sell ; they grow 
rich and grow poor ; they marry and produce 
children ; the children play about the streets like 
so many kittens and puppies ; but through it all 
one can almost hear the muttered expression, 
** Let us eat and drink and be merry ; for to- 
morrow we die." 

There is a pitiableness in the appeal of the 
beggar by the road ; a loneliness about the 
refugee dumbly pursuing his way towards the 
land of plenty which ever eludes him like a 
will-o'-the-wisp ; a hopelessness about the father 
or mother bending over the sick child ; a misery 
in it all which grips the missionary and holds 
him to his post. One missionary, after passing 
through the first years of contact with heathen- 
ism, in a letter to his father, cried out his heart- 
sickness. " It breaks my heart to see the misery 
of these starving people, starving for want of bread 
and for want of hope. I wish the Christians 
in America could be brought face to face wdth 
these people for a little while that they might 
realize their duty. It breaks my heart to see 
the suffering but, after once seeing it, I could 
not leave them if I would. They need me and 1 
must stay." 

The missionary has watched the people as the 
love of Christ slowly penetrated their hearts. 
They have been dwarfed and deformed by 


heathenism. Crushed and stunted, can they 
really be made to respond to the warmth of His 
love? The missionary watches over the first 
glimmering response to that love. He sees the 
hard lines disappear and the hope grow in their 
hearts. The love of Christ does satisfy the 
hearts of all men. The beggar and the prince, 
the ignorant and the educated, the yellow and 
the white race, all alike quench their thirst when 
they come to this fountain. There is naught else 
in the wide universe which will meet and satisfy 
the hearts of all men save the love of Christ. 
To watch the fear going out and the peace com- 
ing into a Chinese heart is worth all the hard- 
ships one endures on the mission field. 

The missionary did not go to China expecting 
to find good roads, carriages, electric cars, 
railroads, telephones, and well-equipped stores 
in every town. Friends will often ask, ** Do you 
really like it better out there than here in the 
home land?" The missionary recalls the first 
sight of America he obtained when returning 
after an absence of seven or eight years. He 
remembers the thrill he experienced when the 
sight of the stars and stripes floating from the 
mast of some vessel greeted his eyes. He thinks 
of the maples, the oaks, the elms; the stores 
with their great show windows, the streets with 
their fine pavements, the loved friends who 
gathered around to greet the ones long-absent 


from their midst and he has no hesitancy in say- 
ing, " I love America above all other lands." 

But when the same friends change the form of 
the question to ** Do you like it out there?" the 
answer must be very different. Ask the soldier 
under fire, or enduring the hardships of the 
march or the privations of the camp, if he likes 
it. Ask the physician who is being called at all 
hours of the day and night to face contagion and 
virulent diseases, if he likes it. Ask the mes- 
senger who goes out from the palace of the king 
to bear a message to some far frontier point, if he 
likes the work. They will tell you that whether 
they like it or not, that has nothing to do with 
the service they are rendering to mankind. 
They render the service because that is their 
business. Do they receive adequate compensa- 
tion for what they do ? might be a more timely 

Sleeping in dirty inns, travelling over difficult 
roads, enduring the tropical heat and heavy rains, 
facing persecutions and hunger, isolated from 
congenial associations, rearing children far away 
from their own kind, becoming companion and 
teacher to them, the missionary asks not if he likes 
it all. He is there because the love of Christ con- 
strained him to come and compensates him for the 
sacrifices he makes and the hardships he endures. 
It is the King's business. The King commands 
and he obeys. 


When Christians in all lands will have learned 
to attend services, teach and pray, visit the sick 
and the stranger, minister to the poor and the 
afflicted, seek the lost and strengthen the weak, 
because it is the King's business and the King 
commands, then God will open the windows of 
heaven and pour out a blessing that there shall 
not be room enough to receive it. 

" I am so glad ! It is such rest to know 
That Thou hast ordered and appointed all, 
And wilt yet order and appoint my lot. 
For though so much I cannot understand. 
And would not choose, has been, and yet may be, 
Thou choosest, Thou performest. Thou, my Lord. 
That is enough for me." 

Printed in the United States of America. 

Recent Missionary Books 


A West-Pointer in the Land of the Mikado 

A vivid account of missionary life in Japan. 

Illustrated, net #1.25 

ARCHIBALD McLEAN P^^sid^a Foreign Christian 

■ — — . . Missionary Society 

Epoch Makers in Modern Missions 

Biographical sketches and studies of sixteen leaders of 
mission work in foreign fields from Martyn onward, net #1.00 


Where the Book Speaks 

" This is a book to be read, studied, digested, passed on to 
oitiQTsr—Homiletic Review. Cloth, net $1.00 


With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple 

" One of the most moving s 
travel."— A^. Y. Sun. 


"One of the most moving stories of modern missionary 
travel."— A^. Y. Sun. Illustrated, net #1.00 

Breaking Down Chinese Walls 

From a Doctor's Viewpoint, 
"Those who wish to know what a missionary family does 
and how it is done cannot do better than to read this most in- 
teresting \iox\i."— Archibald McLean. Illustrated, net #1.00 

Z. S. LOFTIS, M, D. 

A Message from Batang 

The Diary of Z. S. Loftis. M. D. 
"No one can read unmoved this book with its forceful 
message." — Christian Advocate. Illustrated, net 75c. 


Life of G. L. Wharton 

Pioneer Missionary of the F. C. M. S. 
Will prove of special interest to " Disciples of Christ " as 
an appreciation of one of their own heroes. 

Illustrated, net #1.26 

Helen E. Moses 

Of the Christian Woman's Board of Missions. 
" The story of her life and its results would be inspiration 
to anyone — it is renewed inspiration for those who knew 
her." — Indiana News. Net #1.00 



Fifty Years Mistionarj of the American Board in Turkef 

Christian and Mohammedan 

A Plea for Bridging the Chasm. Illustrated, net $1.25. 

"Dr. Herrick has given his life to missionary work among 
the Mohammedans. Opinions from leading missionaries to 
Mohammedans, in all parts of the world have been brought 
together in the book for the elucidation of essential points 
of the problem and form an immensely practical feature of 
the discussion." — Henry Otis Dwight, LL.D, 


Human Progress Through Missions 

i2mo, cloth, net 50c. 
By the Foreign Secretary of the American Board. The 
book is a notable addition to the apologetics of Missions and 
will carry a message of conviction to many a reader who 
may not be fully persuaded of the value and necessity of 
Christian work in foreign lands. 

A Queen Esther Round Robin 

Decorated Paper, in Envelope, net 250. 
"It was a pretty conceit to have a disbanding migsion 
circle keep up their mutual connection by writing a "round 
robin." It is just the thing for girls' mission bands."— 
S. S. Times. 


Arabia : The Cradle of Islam 

Studies in the Geography, People and Politics of 
the Peninsula; with an account of Islam and Mis- 
sionary Work. New Edition, Illustrated. 8vo, 
Cloth, net $2.00. 


The Stolen Bridegroom EAs^?i?D?A"N^"^vrxs 

Illustrated, i2mo, cloth, net 750. 
The author has vividly portrayed some of the ways in 
which Christ enters the Hindu heart; Just the book to read 
in the auxiliary society or to bring into the reading club.**— • 
Mission Studies. 

Children's Missionary Series 

Cloth, decorated, each, net 60c. 
New Volumes. 
Children of Persia. Mrs. Napier Malcolm. 
Children of Borneo. Edwin H. Gomes. 

Each volume is written by an authority on tHe countries 
represented as well as by a writer who knows how to tell 
a Story that will both entertain and instruct children. 


ROBERT E. SPEER The Cole Lectures for igil. 

Some Great Leaders in the World 

Movement i2mo, cloth, net $1.25 

Mr. Speer in his characteristic inspiring way has pre- 
sented the key note of the lives of six of the World's great- 
eat missionaries: Raymond Lull, the crusading spirit ID mis- 
sions; William Carey, the problems of the pioneer; Alexander 
Duff, Missions and Education; George Bowen, the ascetic 
ideal in missions; John I^awrence, politics and missions; and 
Charles G. Gordon, modern missionary knight^errancy. 

S. M. ZIVEMER, F.R.G.S.y and Others 

Islam and Missions 

i2mo, cloth, net $1.50. 
This volume presents the papers read at the Second 
Conference on Missions to Moslems, recently held in I^uck- 
now, India. The contributors are all experts of large ex- 
pepience in such mission effort. 

V ANSOMMER, ANNIE, and Others 

Daylight in the Harem 

A New Era for Moslem Women. In Press. 

Woman's work for Woman is nowhere more needed than 
on the part of Christian women for their sisters of Islam. 
It is a most difficult field of service, but this volume by au- 
thors long and practically interested in this important Chris- 
tian ministry, oemonstrates how effectually this work has 
opened and is being carried forward with promising results. 


An Interpretation of India's Religious 

Ht Arkfxr Introduction by President King^ LLyD. 
tUSrOry ofOberUn College 

i2mo, cloth, net $1.25. 
The author of this careful, though popular, study, is 
eminently qualified to deal with the subject of his thought- 
ful volume. Equipped for this purpose through long resi- 
dence in India and intimate study of India's religious his- 
tory, what he says will be accepted as the estimate and in- 
terpretation of an authority. 


The Education of Women in China 

"^.llustrated, i2mo, cloth, net $1.25. 
The author of this scholarly study of the Chinese woman 
and education is the daughter of Prof. Ernest E- Burton, of 

the University of Chicago The work is probably the 

most thorough study of an important phase of the economic 
development of the world's most populous country that has 


daptiel McGilvary, p.p. 

A Half Century Among the Siamese 
and the Lao 

An Atitobiography of Daniel McGilvary, D.D. 
With an Introduction by Arthur J. Brown, D.D. 

Illustrated, i2mo, cloth, net $2.00. 

There is no more fascinating story in fiction, or in that 
truth which is stranger than fiction The years of toil and 
privation of loneliness and sometimes of danger; how the 
missionaries persevered with splendid faith and courage until 
the foundations of a prosperous mission were laid are por- 
trayed with graphic power. It is a book of adventure and 
human interest and a notable contribution to American for- 
eign missionary literature." — Presbyterian Banner. 


A Modern Pioneer in Korea 

The Life Story of Henry G. Appenzeller. Illus- 
trated, i2mo, cloth, net $1.25. 

This life is another stirring chapter in the record of 
modern missionary heroism. The author's name is a guar- 
antee of its thoroughness, accuracy and interest. Dr. GriflRs 
has woven a most picturesque and interesting background of 
Korean landscape, life and history. It is a book that will 
win interest in missionary effort. 


Notable Women of Modem China i 

Illustrated, i2mo, cloth, net $1.25. 

ITie author's earlier work on the general subject of 
Wbmen's E^ducation in China, indicates her ability to treat 
with peculiar interest and discernment the characters making 
up this volume of striking biographies. If these women are 
types to be followed by a great company of like aspirations 
the future of the nation is assured. 


Character-Building in China 

The Life Story of Julia Brown Mateer. Illustra- 
ted, i2mo, cloth, net $1.00. 

"Gives a vivid, many-sided picture of missionary worK. 
It IS, in fact, an answer to such questions as. How is mis- 
sionary life practically lived? It is of engrossing interest 
alike to the advocates of missionary work and general readers 
who enjoy real glimpses of foreign and pagan civilization."— 
Presbyterian Advance. 

Date Due 




miM\ IT 16 





IN U. S. A.